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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (100)
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31

Van der waals forces (2)

-weak brief attractions between neutral atoms
-only 1% as strong as covalent bonds

32

mixtures

consist of substances physically not chemically blended

33

Properties of water (5)

-universal solvent
-cohesion (surface tension)
-adhesion
-chemical reactivity (hydrolysis & dehydration)
-thermal stability (high heat capacity)

34

hydrolysis (2)

-water used to break bonds
-breaks covalent bonds

35

dehydration

water released when bonds are made

36

solution

consists of a solute & solvent

37

colloids (6)

-can change from liquid to gel state within & between cells
-in the body they are mixtures of protein & water
-small particles
-too large to pass thru semipermeable membrane
-remain permanently mixed with the solvent when left alone
-cloudy

38

suspension (4)

-large particles
-too large to penetrate selectively permeable membranes
-separates when left alone
-cloudy

39

emulsion

suspension of one liquid in another

40

in a percentage (concentration) (2)

-# of molecules unequal
-weight of solute equal

41

in molar (concentration) (2)

-# of molecules equal
-weight of solute unequal

42

acid

proton donor (release H+)

43

base

proton acceptor (accept H+)

44

pH

measurement of H+ on a log scale

45

What does our body use to resist changes in pH?

buffer

46

energy

capacity to do work

47

potential energy (2)

-energy contained in an object b/c of its position or internal state
-not doing work

48

kinetic energy (2) & example

-energy in motion
-energy that is actively doing work
ex. heat

49

decomposition reactions(3)

-large molecule breaks down into 2 or more smaller ones
-AB-> A+B
-break

50

classes of chemical reactions (3)

-decomposition
-synthesis
-exchange

51

free energy

potential energy available in a system to do useful work

52

synthesis reactions (3)

-two or more small molecules combine to form a larger one
-A+B->AB
-create

53

exchange reactions

-two molecules exchange atoms or group of atoms
-create & make

54

reaction rates affected by (3)

-concentration of reactants
-temperature
-catalysts

55

catalysts (3)

-substances that temporarily bind to reactants
-speed up reactions
-not permanently consumed or changed

56

catabolism (3)

-exgeronic
-breaks covalent bonds
-decomposition

57

anabolism (4)

-endergonic
-require energy input
-synthesis
-driven by energy that catabolism releases

58

Catabolism & anabolism are _______ linked

inseparately

59

oxidation (2)

-molecules give up electrons & releases energy
-reducing agent

60

reduction (2)

-molecule that gains electrons & energy
-oxidizing agent