Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (37)
What does the scientific approach to research assume?
assumes that there are laws of behaviour that can be discovered through empirical research
What are the goals of science in psychology?
1. Measurement and description of behaviour
2. Understand the prediction of behaviour
3. The application of knowledge to the task of controlling behaviour
What are the 2 methods of scientific research used?
1. Descriptive methods
2. Experimental methods
What are the 5 steps to investigating research?
1. Formulate a testable hypothesis
2. Select the research method and design study
3. Collet data
4. Analyze the data and draw conclusions
5. Report the findings
What are the advantages to scientific method of research?
We can trust it more because its evidence based
How do you build theory?
- by generating a set of principles that tie facts and observations together in a framework
- needs to be repeated to ensure they are accurate
What is descriptive method of research?
observes and describes a specific behaviour in as much detail as possible
What are the 3 types of descriptive research?
What are the pros and cons of the descriptive method of CASE STUDY?
PRO- very in-depth study
CON- observers bias, generalizability
What is observers bias?
people are not always as objective as they would like to be; people hear what they want to hear
What is generalizability?
you are looking at one specific case so you can't generalize specifically
What are the pros and cons of SURVEYS?
Pro- they are fast, cheap, and easy to do
Con- response bias (social desirability bias), and sampling bias
What is responses bias?
when there are void questions or the answers are skewed because of social desirability
What is sampling bias?
the group sampled must represent the the group you are interested in
What is naturalistic observations?
observe subject in the place they live
What are some pros and cons of naturalistic observation?
Pro- most powerful widely used method
Con- observers effect ( we react to the presence of an observer
When 2 variables relate to one another they are….
What does the correlation coefficient represent?
(r ) the degree of correlations
When one variable increases as the other increases this is what kind of correlation?
When one variable decreases at the other increases this is what kind of correlation
What are the (3) steps to the experimental method?
1. manipulate a variable you think effects behaviour
2. create 2 or more groups of participants, alike in all respects, who get different treatment
3. record whether manipulating the variable has any effect on behaviour
What is the independent variable?
(x) the suspected cause of the change
What is the dependant variable?
(y) the effect of the independent variable
What is an experimental group?
subjects that receive the treatment
What is the control group?
subjects that do not receive the treatment
What are extraneous variables?
factors that a researcher wants to prevent from affecting the outcome of the experiment
What is the logic behind the experimental method?
take 2 groups alike, give one the independent variable and not the other and the resulting differences in the 2 groups MUST be DUE to the INDEPENDANT VARIABLE
What do you need to watch for in the experimental method i order to prevent error?
- placebo effect
- experimental bias
What is the placebo effect?
expectation of effect create the cause