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1

What does the scientific approach to research assume?

assumes that there are laws of behaviour that can be discovered through empirical research

2

What are the goals of science in psychology?

1. Measurement and description of behaviour
2. Understand the prediction of behaviour
3. The application of knowledge to the task of controlling behaviour

3

What are the 2 methods of scientific research used?

1. Descriptive methods
2. Experimental methods

4

What are the 5 steps to investigating research?

1. Formulate a testable hypothesis
2. Select the research method and design study
3. Collet data
4. Analyze the data and draw conclusions
5. Report the findings

5

What are the advantages to scientific method of research?

We can trust it more because its evidence based

6

How do you build theory?

- by generating a set of principles that tie facts and observations together in a framework
- needs to be repeated to ensure they are accurate

7

What is descriptive method of research?

observes and describes a specific behaviour in as much detail as possible

8

What are the 3 types of descriptive research?

Case studies
Surveys
Natural observation

9

What are the pros and cons of the descriptive method of CASE STUDY?

PRO- very in-depth study
CON- observers bias, generalizability

10

What is observers bias?

people are not always as objective as they would like to be; people hear what they want to hear

11

What is generalizability?

you are looking at one specific case so you can't generalize specifically

12

What are the pros and cons of SURVEYS?

Pro- they are fast, cheap, and easy to do
Con- response bias (social desirability bias), and sampling bias

13

What is responses bias?

when there are void questions or the answers are skewed because of social desirability

14

What is sampling bias?

the group sampled must represent the the group you are interested in

15

What is naturalistic observations?

observe subject in the place they live

16

What are some pros and cons of naturalistic observation?

Pro- most powerful widely used method
Con- observers effect ( we react to the presence of an observer

17

When 2 variables relate to one another they are….

correlated

18

What does the correlation coefficient represent?

(r ) the degree of correlations

19

When one variable increases as the other increases this is what kind of correlation?

Positive correlation

20

When one variable decreases at the other increases this is what kind of correlation

Negative correlation

21

What are the (3) steps to the experimental method?

1. manipulate a variable you think effects behaviour
2. create 2 or more groups of participants, alike in all respects, who get different treatment
3. record whether manipulating the variable has any effect on behaviour

22

What is the independent variable?

(x) the suspected cause of the change

23

What is the dependant variable?

(y) the effect of the independent variable

24

What is an experimental group?

subjects that receive the treatment

25

What is the control group?

subjects that do not receive the treatment

26

What are extraneous variables?

factors that a researcher wants to prevent from affecting the outcome of the experiment

27

What is the logic behind the experimental method?

take 2 groups alike, give one the independent variable and not the other and the resulting differences in the 2 groups MUST be DUE to the INDEPENDANT VARIABLE

28

What do you need to watch for in the experimental method i order to prevent error?

- placebo effect
- experimental bias

29

What is the placebo effect?

expectation of effect create the cause

30

What is experimental bias?

the experimenters expectations can also effect outcome