Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (91)
What is a microorganism?
A small, living organism (thing)
What is a pathogen?
A disease-causing microorganism
What is a toxin
What are the four types of microorganisms that contaminate food?
Bacteria, Viruses, Parasites, and Fungi
What is bacteria?
Living, single-cell organisms. They can be carried by food, water, soil, humans, and insects and can rapidly reproduce under favorable conditions
What is a spore?
A capsule that protects bacteria against unfavorable conditions. Spores enable bacteria to survive some cooking and freezing temperatures.
What do bacteria need to grow?
FATTOM - Food, Acidity, Time, Temperature, Oxygen, Moisture
What is the textbook definition for pH?
The power of hydrogen. The pH scale goes from 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very alkaline).
What pH level do bacteria need to grow?
4.6 to 7.5
What is TDZ
Temperature danger zone--the temperature range in which most foodborne microorganisms grow well
What is the TDZ range?
41 F - 135 F
What is the scientific term for moisture in food?
aw -- water activity
What is the moisture level that bacteria need to grow?
.85 or higher
What are four things that can be done to prevent the growth of bacteria in food?
1) Controlling time and temperature; 2) Preventing cross-contamination; 3) Practicing good hygiene; 4) Purchasing from approved suppliers
What is a virus?
The smallest of the microorganisms.
How are viruses primarily transmitted?
Through improper hygiene and contaminated water?
Trichinosis is a foodborne illness that is caused by?
Under what conditions do molds prefer to grow?
Molds can grow on almost any food at any temperature
Under what conditions to bacteria grow especially well in food?
Bacteria grow well in food that is warm, moist, contains protein, and has a pH level that is neutral to slightly acidic.
What conditions are necessary for viruses to survive and reproduce?
They need a living cell to survive and reproduce.
A foodborne illness often caused by contaminated chicken and eggs is?
What is the description of toxoplasmosis?
Toxoplasmosis is caused by a parasite that lives in cat feces; the food most associated with it is undercooked or raw meat.
What does the "A" in FATTOM stand for?
Describe the threat of bacteria to food.
Bacteria are the microorganisms that post the greatest threat to food safety.
In which of the following types of food are bacteria most likely to grow: 1) Calorie-rich food; 2) Moist food; 3) Hot food; 4) Frozen food?
What is a key factor to preventing bacterial growth?
Time and temperature control
Which of the following is most likely to cause a foodborne infection: 1) a hamburger cooked rare; 2) A bacon-lettuce-tomato sandwich; 3) Sweet-and-sour pork; 4) Chips and salsa
A hamburger cooked rare
The leading cause of foodborne illness is?
eating food contaminated with foodborne pathogens
microorganisms that cause disease