Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (206)
The science of structure and interactions of matter
Building blocks that make up all matter
Designates each element. Uses one or two letters of the elements name in English Latin or another language
Four elements that constitute about 96% of the bodies mass: Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
How many chemical elements are normally present in the human body?
Contribute about 3.6% to the bodies mass: Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur,sodium,chlorine, magnesium,and iron.
additional 14 elements that altogether Account for the remaining .4% of the body's mass.
About 65% of body mass
Part of water and many organic molecules used to generate ATP, a molecule used by cells to temporarily store chemical energy
About 18.5% of total body mass
Forms backbone chains and rings of all organic molecules; Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
9.5% Of total body mass
Constituent Of water and most organic molecules; ionized form (H+) Makes body fluids more acidic
3.2% Of total body mass
Components of all proteins and nucleic acids
What are the major elements?
About 1.5% Of total body mass
Contributes to hardness of bones and teeth; ionized form (Ca2+) Needed for blood clotting, release of some hormones, contraction of muscles and many other processes
1% of total body mass
Component of nucleic acids and ATP; Required for normal bone and tooth structure.
.35% of total body mass
Ionized form (K+) Is the most plentiful cation (Positively charged particle) in intracellular fluid; Needed to generate action potentials
.25% of total body mass
Component of some vitamins and many proteins
.2% of total body mass
Ionized form (Na+) is the most plentiful cation in extracellular fluid; Essential for maintaining water balance; needed to generate action potentials.
.2% of total body mass
Ionized form (Cl-) Is the most plentiful anion in extracellular fluid; Essential for maintaining water balance
.1% of total body mass
Ionized form (Mg2+) Needed for action of many enzymes, molecules that increase the rate of chemical reactions organisms
.005% of total body mass
Ionized forms (Fe2+ and Fe3+) Are part of hemoglobin
Lesser elements that make up about .04% of total body mass
Aluminum, boron, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, Manganese, molybdenum, Selenium, silicon, tin, vanadium, and zinc
Oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells
Positively charged particle
Negatively charged particle
The smallest units of matter that retain the properties and characteristics of the element
Compose individual atoms
The dense central core of an atom
A stable positively charged subatomic particle Within the nucleus of an atom
Electrically neutral subatomic particle within the nucleus of an atom