Flashcards in Chapter 17-Teaching the Diagnosis and Treatment Planning Course Deck (27)
What are reasons counselors do need diagnostic capacities?
1. Third-party payers
2. Diagnoses enable research on particular types of psychopathology
3. Means of communicating with other mental health professionals
4. May need for referral to different type of professional
Describe TRADITIONAL MODELS OF TEACHING DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT PLANNING
1. Illness-and-cure tradition, clients are “diagnosed” with “mental disorder” and “treated” to “cure” their “illness.”
2. Traditional texts of abnormal psychology textbook and DSM
3. Objectivist Model
Describe the structure of TRADITIONAL MODELS OF TEACHING DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT PLANNING
1. Memorize and then apply diagnostic categories
2. Established by “experts”
Postmodern and constructivist philosophies propose at least two principles:
1. one related to language
2. other related to who makes meanings and how
* Meanings are historically situated and constructed and reconstructed through the medium of language
What terms does constructivist use replace the traditional term treatment planning the word diagnosis?
1. Collaborative counseling planning
As described previously, what are three postmodern concepts on about knowledge?
1. social constructionism
** illustrate how meaning is represented rather than found
What concepts are good to review before the diagnosis and treatment course?
Social constructionism, emphasizes two primary ideas:
(1) knowledge is constructed rather than discovered
(2) knowledge is constructed within, and therefore affected by, its social context
** Knowledge cannot be separated from contexts: ethnicity, social class, gender, or time in history.
Give 2 examples of questions of how positivist and constructivist questions about assessment differ.
1. “What are the facts?” Vs. What are the assumptions?”
2. “What are the answers?” Vs. “What are the questions, and how were they decided?”
Three illustrations of positivist assessment in history:
1. Women incapable of serious intellectual endeavors, risked sterility if pursued higher education
2. Women victims of partner abuse diagnosed instead of addressing abuse
3. Perspective on eye contact
Why teach the DSM at all?
1. Communicating among professionals
2. Way of organizing client behaviors.
3. When used flexibly, may provide clues to explore further
4. Identifying situations/life contexts that intersect with specific diagnoses
5. Clients have a name for what was once a nameless set of experiences
What are goals of teaching diagnosis course with a postmodern perspective?
(1) to help students understand clients’ psychological distress from multiple perspectives and in collaboration with clients and their communities
(2) to help students work together with clients and their communities to build meaningful counseling plans
How does constructivist version of the diagnosis course teach students to use the DSM?
1. Develop multi-axial diagnoses.
2. Emphasize how Axis 4 psychosocial stressors interact with the other Axes.
How do counselor educators use CONSTRUCTIVISM TO TEACHING THE DIAGNOSTIC COURSE?
Use reflexive, inclusive, context-sensitive classroom strategies as well as challenging traditional notions of diagnosis and treatment planning.
What are diverse materials that could be used in the diagnostic course?
1. Eriksen and Kress’s (2005) Beyond the DSM Story
2. Parker et al. (1995), in Deconstructing Psychopathology (existence of diagnostic categories actually creates diagnoses)
How does a constructivist diagnosis course address so-called treatment plans?
1. Renamed collaborative counseling plans
2. Use traditional treatment planning book that addresses both concrete cognitive-behavioral and insight-oriented interventions AND narrative or solution-oriented interventions
What activity assists students in owning the diagnostic course?
Students brainstorm list of needs and desires for the course
What is another activity that can help students learn about diagnoses?
1. Invite friends/family members to class who have had a diagnosis
2. Develop questions that will help students better understand the visitors’ “disorders.”
What are some challenges in having guest visitors?
1. Logistical-trying to schedule, have a backup plan for no shows
2. Ethical considerations of:
B. Do no harm
C. Not to use clients for our own personal benefit
How can instructor mitigate ethical concerns for guest visitors?
1. Rely on mental health professionals for sound guest visitor referrals
2. Send ideas visitors about specific questions they might address
3. Inform visitors it is up to them what they share and how much
4. If they become uncomfortable, they may end presentation at any time
How can role play be used in the diagnosis course?
1. Students role play a presenting problem with class members
2. The “counselor” can then tries to identify the DSM category
3. “counselors” develop a collaborative counseling plan with the “client.”
Describe Dr. S. Weir Mitchell’s treatment of females as an historical illustration that can be shared in the diagnosis course.
1. Treatment of female neurasthenia patients (i.e., those with fatigue, loss of energy and memory, and feelings of inadequacy), 2. Involved overfeeding the women and depriving them of intellectual and social stimulation.
Describe Dr. Isaac Baker Brown’s treatment of females as an historical illustration that can be shared in the diagnosis course.
1. Advocated and practiced clitoridectomy as a cure for female masturbation.
2. Women of upper class could not survive masturbation and would succumb to idiocy and eventually death if they practiced it.
3. Many of these women were considering divorce.
How can debate help students in the diagnosis course?
1. Encourage multiple perspectives
2. Directs students who are more multiplistic or subjectivist (in between dualistic and constructivist to evaluate usefulness of particular methods in different situations.
3. Can reduce dualistic thinking.
Define Deconstruction in terms of the diagnosis course.
Process of examining the foundations of meanings by exploring their context
Deconstructive listening requires counselors to:
1. believe that people’s stories can have many possible meanings 2. The meaning the listener makes may not be what the speaker intended
3. Students need “not knowing” attitude to encourage discussion of multiple possible interpretations
How can videos help in the diagnostic course?
1. Encourage metacognition by asking students to use Interpersonal Process Recall (Kagan, 1980) to discuss what they are thinking at various points in the video.
2. EX questions:
“Why were you thinking that?” “Where does such thinking come from?” “What does such thinking tell you about yourself?”