Chapter 17 - Anti-Infective Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 - Anti-Infective Drugs Deck (41)
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30

Antiviral agent

(P. 310 and 584)

Medications used to treat viruses, for example HIV and herpes.

31

acyclovir

(P. 310)

Is used predominantly in the treatment of herpes simplex, herpes zoster (shingles), and varicella zoster (chicken pox) infections.

32

oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza)

(P. 311)

Belong to a class of antivirals called neuraminidase Inhibitors and are indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated acute illness caused by influenza type A and B.

• Both are also indicated for prophylaxis but should not be considered a substitute for annual influenza virus vaccination, which Remains the gold standard for reducing the impact of influenza.

33

Antiretroviral (ARV) agents

(P. 313 and 584)

Agents that act against retroviruses such as HIV.

34

Integrase inhibitor: raltegravir (Isentress)

(P. 316)

Is the first ARV in the class that is designed to slow the advancement of HIV infection by blocking the enzyme needed for viral replication.

35

Antiretroviral Protease Inhibitors (PIs)

(P. 313)

Block the activity of the HIV enzyme essential for viral replication late in the viral life cycle.

• The first PI to be approved was saquinavir (Invirase), followed by more than eight other ARV protease inhibitors.

36

Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)

(P. 314)

Inhibits an enzyme responsible for viral replication early in the viral life cycle.

• zidovudine (ZDV, Retrovir) was the first agent to be approved for the treatment of HIV, followed by more than six other NRTIs.

37

Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)

(P. 314)

Inhibits an enzyme responsible for viral replication early in the viral life cycle.

• nevirapine (Viramune) was the first NNRTI to be approved, followed by four others.

38

Fusion Inhibitors (FIs)

(P. 315)

Has been shown to block entry of HIV into cells, which may keep the virus from reproducing.

• enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) was the first FI approved for treatment experienced patients with ongoing HIV replication despite current ARV use.

• it is administered by subcutaneous injection twice-daily.

39

CCR5 Antagonists

(P. 315)

Block a coreceptor required for HIV entry into human cells.

• maraviroc (Selzentry) is the first oral CCR5 Antagonist and is used in conjunction with other ARVs.

40

Opportunistic infections

(P. 316 and 591)

Infections that occur because the immune system is compromised.