Chapter 16-Creating Constructivist Courses in Practicum and Internship Flashcards Preview

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Schön suggests that one learns a practice such as counseling by:

(a) doing
(b) interactions with others
(c) exposure and immersion


Learning by doing highlights:
Doing without reflecting:

A. the importance of reflection in action (Schön, 1987)

B. reduces the impact of learning.


The nature of clinical training calls for:

1. relativistic ways of thinking
2. the outcome of the relativistic position is confident uncertainty


The challenge for practicum/internship supervisors is to create environments where:

Counselor trainees embrace the following concepts as gateways to understanding:
1. Concept of productive failure
2. State of not knowing


How is counseling simultaneously an intensely personal and public professional act?

Who cousnelors are as people (the personal element) is who they are as professionals (the public element).


What notions are important in the learning-by-doing model?

1. Notion of productive failure extremely helpful
2. Failure is embraced to promote appropriate risk taking and creativity.
3. Move a counselor trainee from experiences of counseling to using these experiences to build knowledge of counseling practice


The central premise of tacit knowledge is:

1. one knows more than one can tell.
2. not the same thing as repression or even the unconscious.
3. active process whereby we use our bodies to attend to the world and dwell within it


When counselors meet with clients, they may be unable to easily express or understand what happened. What is the process of what may be happening for them?

1. Silence or struggle for clear expression is due to “understanding precedes language”
2. May first express itself as a hunch.
3. With supervisor support, may evolve into something meaningful and useful.


How do counselor trainees begin to speak about what they only tacitly understand?

1. Introduce the concept of tacit knowing
2. Ask counselor trainees for personal examples own tacit knowing
3. Tacit knowledge is a necessary building block to more expansive understanding
4. Counselor trainees will not only see the importance of hunches, but bring them into the supervisory conversation.


What else is important in the conversation about tacit knowledge?

1. Use inquiry to draw counselor trainees from internal personal knowing to more socially constructed ways.
2. Possibility for explanation, interpretation, application, perspective, empathy, and self-knowledge


How does Wittgenstein define ostensive explanations or ostensive definitions?

To literally point one’s finger at the object one lacks words to define.
They are forms of tacit knowledge that can lead to explicit knowledge


RE: practicum and internships, describe activity of Essential Questions.

1. Helping counselor trainees create questions that give shape and expression to what is known but cannot be told.
2. We seek not to ask questions ourselves, prompt counselor trainees to ask questions.
3. Goldberg calls “questions with heart,” speak to the multidimensional nature of experience.


Describe/define Essential Questioning.

1. Essential communicates necessity for ushering into conversations an “enduring evolutionary understanding”
2. Evolutionary: contributes to and transforms the knowledge base of counseling practice.


Essential questions are based in what classification of thinking skills?

Bloom’s Taxonomy
1. knowledge
2. comprehension
3. application
4. analysis
5. synthesis
6. evaluation


How does Bloom’s Taxonomy assist supervisors in practicum/internship?

1. Increases supervisor intentionality
2. Gives supervisors structured format for understanding a trainee’s current way of knowing.


How does Bloom’s Taxonomy assist counselor trainees in practicum/internship?

1. Can create essential questions and categorize them according to Bloom’s Taxonomy
2. Evaluate the results of their thinking
3. Counselor trainees who create essential questions become more independent and collaborative learners.
4. Focus on upper levels of Taxonomy for more complex thinking


What is the goal of Journals or Diaries in practicum/internship?

Organize the writing tasks to steer responses toward the right side of Bloom’s Taxonomy (i.e., application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation).


Describe Reflecting Teams in practicum/internship.

1. In family therapy’s reflecting teams, counselors share hypotheses with family to make therapy more transparent and less hierarchical
2. Allow a team to quietly observe an existing interpersonal dynamic or system.
3. Initiates tacit knowledge from its members.


Describe Follow-up Case Presentation in practicum/internship.

Counselor trainees benefit from engaging in conversations about the same case over time.
Usually helps trainees move along Bloom’s Taxonomy


Describe Personal Career Development Portfolio in practicum/internship.

Counselor trainees show competency in four areas:
1. how counseling works and how change occurs.
2. site-specific professional disclosure statement.
3. produce an advertisement directed to clients
4. provide evidence for competency in specific areas of interest


Describe Field Experience Project and Presentation in practicum/internship.

1. Counselor trainees “give back,” to their placement site by collaborating with site supervisor on a project.
2. EX: organizing resource materials, creating a resource manual, organizing or creating clinical files for supervision, or developing a psychoeducational program or group experience.


Describe Oral Case Presentations in practicum/internship.

Counselor trainee provides:
1. Brief overview of client’s background
2. Identified concerns
3. Defined goals for counseling.
Asks group for insight


Describe Transcribed Recordings in practicum/internship.

1. Characterize interactions between themselves and client using Bloom’s Taxonomy
2. Mismatched intervention and communication between client and counselor trainee can become apparent.