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1

serves to anchor, support, and protect the teeth

periodontium

2

structures that anchor the tooth in the alveolar socket

Periodontal (peri-odont-al) tissues/ligaments

3

bony socket in which teeth are located

Alveolar (alveo/l-ar) tissue

4

the gum tissue that surrounds the tooth to protect the tooth root and the underlying tissues

Gingiva

5

structure that covers the whole root

Cementum

6

gingival tissues react to the build-up of plaque

Dental plaque involvement

7

the gums react to dental plaque more intensely due to internal factors such as pregnancy or malnutrition

Dental plaque with systemic involvement may be called induced gingivitis

8

gingivitis secondary to causes other than plaque. An example would be a bacterial infection

Non-dental plaque lesions

9

gingivitis is secondary to allergic responses to extrinsic factors, such as certain foods

Allergies

10

the gingivae become inflamed as a result of an injury

Trauma

11

inflammation that progresses slowly and is a long-term problem

Chronic periodontitis

12

rapid loss of periodontal tissue and bone destruction, usually the result of bacteria

Aggressive periodontitis

13

loss of periodontal tissue despite optimal oral hygiene and patient compliance

Refractory periodontitis

14

peridontium is inflamed secondary to other diseases or disorders, such as malnutrition, AIDS

Periodontitis due to systemic disease

15

rapidly progressing diseases where the tissue cells become necrotic (irreversible cell death). May affect the gingivae only (necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis), or may involve other periodontal tissues as well (necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis)

Necrotizing periodontal diseases

16

redness

Erythema

17

swelling

Edema:

18

Common signs of periodontal disease stippling is the ‘speckling of fine dots’ seen on the tissues. When this stippling is lost, the tissues become sleek and shiny

Stippling loss

19

as the gums begin to recede, tooth root surfaces can be seen

Pocket formation

20

foul-smelling fluid or semi-solid discharge

Exudate

21

teeth become loose and more mobile due to lack of anchoring and support

Tooth mobility

22

scaling and removal of plaque, calculi (tartar, plural of calculus), and other irritants from the gingivae

Periodontal debridement

23

removing stains and other irritants from the teeth

Tooth polishing

24

individualized instructions for optimal home hygiene, might include antibacterial (anti-bacteri-al) agents, mouth rinses, improved food choices

Patient education

25

cutting into the mucous membranes to correct the shape or position of the gingivae, or to ease the swelling caused by pericoronitis

Mucogingival excision

26

refers to inflammation of the gums around the crown of an erupting tooth

pericoronitis

27

portion of tissue is detached from the underlying alveolar bone to allow for drainage of exudate or other irritants, and to allow for elimination/removal of deposits

Periodontal flap

28

involving the alveolar bone to alter its anchoring of the tooth, thereby altering the gingival tissues around the tooth

Osseous surgery

29

repair of structures in the vestibule (frenum and muscle attachments) to restore alveolar height

Vestibuloplasty

30

hand-held calibrated tool, to assess depth of pockets and evaluate periodontal health

Periodontal probe