Flashcards in Chapter 14-Teaching Career Development Deck (36)
What is the task of the career counselor?
What is the task of the counselor educator?
1. Help client reflect on and make sense of experiences in relation to life role choices.
2. Evoke the counselor’s role in the construction of career.
What is a constructivist definition of career?
Telling of a life story, an internal and subjective narrative
Not simply a chronology of job history
How did Peavy describe CAREER?
Evolving biographical narrative under continuous revision
How did Miller-Tiedeman describe CAREER?
Everyone has a career—it is one’s life.
How do constructivist career counselors help clients?
1. Discern patterns, hence meaning, from previous life experiences
2. Giving voice to their emerging life stories
3. Cochran-coauthors of stories in progress
4. Value dialogue
According to Peavy, constructivist career counselors possess 3 specific competencies:
1. Mindfulness-observe oneself, understand oneself as a constructed(ing) person, with a personal “life career”
2. Receptive Inquiry-clients feel safe when being respectfully questioned about past experiences
3. Meaning-making facilitation-skills to assist clients in discovering themes, patterns, and meanings
What are other ways that counselors can be educated in career counseling?
1. Actual career counseling and reflection
2. How to use career theories
3. Career assessments
4. Career information resources
Describe activities for INTRODUCTORY SESSION IN A CONSTRUCTIVIST CAREER COUNSELING COURSE.
1. Case exploration exercise
2. Instructor’s experience as a career counselor
3. Introduces StoryTech-narrative experience
What do students do during the case exploration exercise?
1. Individually define what they believe to be the career issue(s)
2. Imagine desirable outcome for the client
3.Plan what they would do as counselors
4. Consider differences and similarities between counselor and client
How does the Instructor Anecdote help students see the instructor?
1. Allows students to see instructor as a colearner
2. Instructor is a career counselor-in-process.
What guidelines, adapted from Counselor Education for the Twenty-First Century, are important for the career counseling course?
1. Respect others and their positions
2. maintain an open mind
3. Courage to explore one’s own beliefs
4. Be okay with resistance and discomfort
5. Active Participants
1. Arthur Harkins—describes a structured visioning process
2. Telling their own life story, enjoying a perfect day, identifying troublesome career beliefs, confronting personal feelings about career future
In reflecting on their own stories, what do students reflect on?
1. Look for central themes and contexts which will likely be helpful (or not) to future clients
2. Synthesize their life (career) stories.
What do Theories about career patterns attempt to explain?
Patterns in decision making, planning, self-efficacy, and development in career development
How can recognition of how careers and career theories are constructed can ultimately affect how students go about actual counseling?
1. Extend realization about construction of career theory into their work with clients
2. Aware of career theory(ies) by which they operate
3. Alert to informal career theories of their clients
Describe how students can learn about career theories through interviews.
1. Ask someone how she or he thinks about career.
2. Class discusses similarities/differences in responses.
3.Examine interviews through the lenses of different career theories
What are different categories of career theories?
4. decision making
6. social cognitive
What are characteristics of an objective view of career assessment?
1. Client becomes a set of scores, counselor tells client where she or he “fits” into the world of work
2. Focus quantitatively on traits of a client
3. Counselor explains to a client the results of assessment
4. Translate the scores into immediate occupational choices.
How does a constructivist career counselor considers assessment ?
1. Assessment is only one source of information for self-awareness
2. Helps clients make choices based on the implications of their beliefs, values, interests, and abilities
3. Use the results of their to reflect upon and explore future choices
4.Help clients explore the contexts of their lives
What article helps students. discover the contrasts between traditional (objectivist) and reformed (constructivist) approaches?
“Reforming Career Appraisals to Meet the Needs of Clients in the 1990s” (Healy, 1990)
Describe Peavy’s conceptual mapping
1. Clients indicate “self” in a circle in the center of page.
2. Fill page with persons, events, experiences significant to current career concerns.
3. Draw “maps” indicating relationships between and among these elements and the self.
Describe Forster’s (1992) tool he named Goals Review and Organizing Workbook (GROW).
1.Clients identify several meaningful past activities or events.
2. Cluster events into “like” groups.
3. Write goals based on these personal constructs, prioritize goals, and rate the current activities to how well they match the goals
Describe Neimeyer’s (1992) version of Kelly’s (1955) Role Construct Repertory Test, which Neimeyer calls career laddering.
1. Clients in structured intervie, reveal importance of work-related constructs.
2. Choose 3 careers, pick 2 alike and 1 that is different from other 2.
3. What traits do they share?
What doesNeimeyer (1993), in Constructivist Assessment: A Casebook , offer?
More specific details and examples of constructivist techniques Describes additional constructivist assessments and techniques
Constructivist assessment techniques can be characterized in three ways:
(1) clients’ personal constructs related to career
(2) relationship of these constructs to one another
(3) relative importance of these constructs to a given client
How can a constructivist counselor use the more conventional assessments in a constructivist manner?
1. Review results of Self-Directed Search (Holland, 1994) collaboratively with a client.
2. Interviewing client about experiences and influences that may explain this current summary
3. Review specific items to evoke meanings for the client.
4. Make meaning of current scores to make proximate decisions that will influence the next chapter of their life stories.
According to Hoskins (1995), counselors disem-power clients when they
simply dispense information out of context or when they do not help clients learn to access information for themselves.
For constructivist career counselors, the questions to ask and NOT ask are:
Not to ask: “What information can I give the client?”
To ask: “How can I help the client acquire and use this information?”
How should constructivist career counselors help clients understand computerized assessments?
1. Giving clients access to career information is not enough.
2. Deconstruct their attributions
3. Clarify why they need occupational information
4. Name purpose they expect it will fulfill
5. Learn how to make their own sense of the information