Chapter 13 - Reading Buildings Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Reading Buildings Deck (47)
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1

Axial Load

A load that is imposed through the centroid of another object

2

Balloon Framing

A construction method in which continuous wood studs run from the foundation to the roof, and floors are placed on a shelf (called a Ribbon Board) that hangs on the interior surface of the studs

3

Beam

A structural element that transfers loads perpendicularly to the imposed load

4

Brittle

Description for a material that will fracture or fail as it is deformed or stressed past its designed limits

5

Cantilever Beam

A beam supported at only one end, or a beam that extends well past a support in such a way that the unsupported overhang places the top of the beam in tension and the bottom in compression

6

Collapse Zone

The area that is exposed to trauma, debris, and/or thrust should a building collapse.

7

Column

A structural element that transmits a compressive force axially through its center

8

Compression

A force that causes a material to be crushed or flattened axially through the material

9

Connection

A structural element used to attach other structural elements to one another

10

Continuous Beam

A beam that is supported in three or more places

11

Curtain Wall

A non-load bearing wall that supports only itself and is used just to keep weather out

12

Dead Load

The weight of the building itself and anything permanently attached to it

13

Ductile

Description of a material that will bend, deflect, or stretch as a force is resisted, yet retain some strength

14

Eccentric Load

A load that is imposed off-center to another object

15

Emergency Evacuation

A strict order for all crews to immediately escape from a building interior or roof leaving hose lines and tools that can impede rapid retreat behind

16

Engineered Wood

A host of products that consist of many pieces of native wood glued together to make a sheet, a long beam, or a strong column

17

False Work

Temporary shoring, bracing, or formwork used to support incomplete structural elements during building construction

18

General Collapse

The complete failure of a building to resist gravity

19

Girder

A beam that carries other beams

20

Hybrid Building

A building that is a mix of multiple NFPA 220 types or that does not fit into any of the five types

21

Lintel

A beam that spans an opening in a load bearing masonry wall, such as over a garage door opening (often called a "Header")

22

Live Load

Any force or weight, other than the building itself, that a building must carry or absorb

23

Partial Collapse

An event in which the building can accept the failure of a single component and still retain some strength

24

Platform Framing

A construction method in which a single story wall is built and the next floor is built on the tops of the wall studs, creating vertical fire stopping to help minimize fire spread

25

Precautionary Withdrawl

A directive for crews to exit a building interior or roof in an orderly manner, bringing hoses and tools along

26

Raker

A diagonal brace that serves primarily as a column but must absorb some beam forces as well

27

Shear

A force that causes a material to be torn in opposite directions perpendicular or diagonal to the material

28

Spalling

The crumbling and loss of concrete material when exposed to heat

29

Spreader

A seemingly decorative star or other metal plate used to distribute force over more bricks or blocks as part of an unseen corrective measure that exists inside a building

30

Structural Element

The primary load bearing column, beam, or connection used to erect a building