Chapter 13- Neurological Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13- Neurological Deck (23)
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1

stroke = brain attack
lack of oxygen to area of brain

headache, dysphagia, dysphasia, hemiparesis, diplopia, loss of coordination, confusion

3 types of brain attacks
cerebral thrombosis
cerebral hemorrhage
cerebral embolus

Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)

2

ministrokes = little strokes temporary; due to inadequate flow of blood

plaque caused by atherosclerosis

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

3

between skull and dura mater (upon) (dura)
subdural = between dura mater & arachnoid membrane

Epidural Hematoma

3

loss of consciousness = “knocked out”
sx – amnesia, N&V, diplopia
etio – blunt object, blow or fall
disruption of electrical activity of brain

cerebral concussion

4

bruising of brain, more serious, permanent damage may occur 2nd to hematoma

cerebral contusion

5

lower portion of body paralyzed

paraplegia

6

all 4 extremities and trunk paralyzed

quadriplegia

7

deterioration of intervertebral disk
pain radiates down legs
neurological deficits (footdrop and dragging on one leg)

Degenerative Disk Disease

8

slipped disk = ruptured disk causes pressure on spinal nerves
accumulated trauma

Herniated & Bulging Disk

9

degenerative disk disease of L4 – S3 with pressure on sciatic nerve
along the sciatic nerve
spinal stenosis = narrowing causes compression; appears same
trauma or congenital

Sciatic Nerve Injury (Spinal Stenosis)

10

abnormal intense electrical activity in the brain

Epilepsy

11

part of brain involved, localized

partial epilepsy

12

absence (petit mal)

generalized epilepsy

13

one seizure follows another with no recovery

status epilepticus

14

Slowly progressive
tremors of thumb and forefinger, muscle rigidity, slowness of movement
shuffling gait, mask-like facies
decreased dopamine

Parkinson Disease

15

hereditary, degenerative of cerebral cortex
chorea (dance); involuntary movement dementia follows

Huntington Chorea

16

Lou Gehrig disease
motor neuron disease that causes muscular atrophy; men 50 – 60 yrs
fasciculations, all muscles affected, eventually need respirator; no dementia seen

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

17

distal muscles of extremities caused by chronic alcoholism; toxicity

Peripheral Neuritis

18

disorder of 7th cranial nerve, facial nerve; unilateral paralysis
etio – uncertain
tx – heat, exercise

Bell Palsy

19

inflammation of meninges headache and stiff neck
+ Kernig’ and Brudzinskis
etio – bacterial or viral
dx – CSF exam

Meningitis

20

inflammation of the brain viral or toxins, mosquito bites tx - symptoms

Encephalitis

21

acute disease of spinal nerves
muscle weakness, paralysis starts in lower extremities and moves upward

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

22

collection of pus in brain
etio – bacterial infection often from sinus infection or ear infection; or trauma
tx – antibiotics, steroids, drainage

Brain Abscess