Flashcards in chapter 13 biology vocab Deck (18)
dioxytribonucleic acid. Genetic material of all living things. Very simple structure. chemical code for proteins. proteins are responcible for all our traits
t binds to A
C binds to G
is the process of making more copies of DNA
every organism does this because it produces more cells (mitosis), and needs DNA to fill them.
the structure of DNA
looks like a twisted ladder
the sides represent the alternating deoxyribose sugars and phosphate molecules
the steps represent pairs of nitrogenous bases
The study of changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence
A body cell mutations in these cells are passed down to offspring
An electric current is used to separate DNA fragments according to their size
Griffith, Avery, Hershey, and Chase
discovered that DNA was the genetic material (not proteins)
DNA coils around proteins
Genes that control the placement and development of bodyparts.
-same in all creatures
-Can cause evolutionary change.
make up the steps of the dna structure:
a piece of DNA that is made of:
1 dioxyribose sugar ring
1 phosphate molecule
1 nitrogenous base
DNA coils around proteins called dhostons to form nnucleosomes
To do its job a protein must be folded a certain way. If it has incorrect, missing, or extra amino acids,it will not do its job in the body.
Caused by a substitution of an inn correct base is transcribed into the code.
***may or may not change the kinds of amino acids in the protein. Since there's more than one codon per amino acids.
a region of repitive DNA sequences at the end of a chromosome which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration
-mutations in these cells are not passed down to offspring