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1

DNA

dioxytribonucleic acid. Genetic material of all living things. Very simple structure. chemical code for proteins. proteins are responcible for all our traits

1

chargaff"s rule

t binds to A
C binds to G

2

DNA replication

is the process of making more copies of DNA
every organism does this because it produces more cells (mitosis), and needs DNA to fill them.

3

double helix

the structure of DNA
looks like a twisted ladder
the sides represent the alternating deoxyribose sugars and phosphate molecules
the steps represent pairs of nitrogenous bases

4

Epigenetics

The study of changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence
-environmental factors

5

Gametes

A body cell mutations in these cells are passed down to offspring

6

Gel Electrophoresis

An electric current is used to separate DNA fragments according to their size

7

Griffith, Avery, Hershey, and Chase

discovered that DNA was the genetic material (not proteins)

8

histones

DNA coils around proteins

9

Hox genes

Genes that control the placement and development of bodyparts.
-same in all creatures
-Can cause evolutionary change.

10

nitrogenous base

make up the steps of the dna structure:
4 kinds
1.thymine(T)
2. adenine(A)
3.cytosine(C)
4.Guanine(G)

11

nucleotide

a piece of DNA that is made of:
1 dioxyribose sugar ring
1 phosphate molecule
1 nitrogenous base

12

nucleosomes

DNA coils around proteins called dhostons to form nnucleosomes

13

Protein folding

To do its job a protein must be folded a certain way. If it has incorrect, missing, or extra amino acids,it will not do its job in the body.

14

Point mutation

Caused by a substitution of an inn correct base is transcribed into the code.
CCGATT-CCGATA
***may or may not change the kinds of amino acids in the protein. Since there's more than one codon per amino acids.

15

telomeres

a region of repitive DNA sequences at the end of a chromosome which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration

16

Somatic cells

Body cell
-mutations in these cells are not passed down to offspring

17

Watson, Crick, and Franklin

discovered the structure of DNA