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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (61)
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31

What are urban heat islands? Give an example.

All the metal, steel, concrete, and asphalt of the city retains the heat of the day and can create smog. Ex: Atlanta

32

What are the major issues with flooding and water runoff in cities?

Poor drainage due to parking lots and pavement- no open ground and little vegetation to soak up standing water.

33

What is new urbanism?

Eco-friendly strategies

34

What is urban sprawl? Give an example

The spreading out of a city. Ex: Pittsburg.

35

How many world cities can fit in Atlanta?

8

36

What causes a megalopolis/ what causes it?

The annexation of surrounding towns creates a sprawling urban area called a megalopolis

37

What is the peripheral/ galactic model?

Suburbs and urban sprawl have led to a new model of the typical city in the US. Car dependent commuters. Smaller cities are tied together by large ring roads (a bypass past the larger city). Jobs, people, retail, etc have moved to the periphery.

38

What causes edge cities?

Population leaving the CBDs has led to the growth of "edge cities.

39

What are edge cities?

A dense concentration of residents, businesses, retail, and other services outside a traditional downtown. (think Cool Springs)

40

What's another name for edge cities and what is it describing?

Boonburbs- rapidly growing suburbs that have become their own official cities

41

What are some characteristics of edge cities?

Several square feet of office space + retail, specific place name, and no city govt. Nothing was there before 30 years ago

42

What is the concept of an edge city based off of?

Tysons corner, Virginia

43

What is urban renewal?

Attempts to "clean up" the inner cities and return the city to residential status. Its goal is to help eliminate the sprawl and traffic congestion created by rapid suburbanization.

44

What does Arlington, Virginia do that's unique?

It has transit-oriented development that is an effort to help eliminate traffic issues by encouraging development near public transportation lines.

45

What is gentrification?

The desire for some to renovate old, neglected houses and buildings in the inner city has led to many to "gentrify" inner city neighborhoods

46

Who does gentrification appeal to?

Yuppies, preservationists wishing to restore old buildings, DINKS (double income no kids), recent college grads with good paying jobs, and empty nesters

47

What are the positives to gentrification?

It cleans up crumbling areas, increases tax revenue for the city, encourages the return of residents and businesses to the city, and gives a new life to historic buildings and homes

48

What are the downsides to gentrification?

Inner city housing becomes unaffordable and lower income residents are forced out of the city which causes them to have to commute and pay for gas. Also, the migration of low income residents has led to the rise in "gated communities" in the suburubs

49

Describe some characteristics of the Latin American City Model and what is it also called?

Also called the Griffin-Ford Model. Squatter settlements/ slums are on the edges of the CBD/periphery and on cheap land that's less desirable and dangerous (more vulnerable to natural disasters), wide streets, Spanish style, the wealthy live along the commercial spine, and the CBD dominates the central plaza.

50

What are some examples of the Latin American City Model?

Buenos Aires, Argentina (Plaza De Mayo), the Barrios of Mexico City, Bogota, Colombia, Brazil's favalas (with escalators)

51

Describe the African City Model and what is another name for it?

Also called the De Blij Model. The city is made up of three districts/ CBDs: Colonial district, traditional district, and the market zone (mixed). Residential areas are segregated and slums are on the edges. It often has a French style of architecture (particularly in North Africa with their wide tree lined streets and pedestrian avenues)

52

What are some examples of the African City Model?

Lagos, Nigeria; Cape Town, South Africa; Johannesburg, South Africa, and Nairobi, Kenya

53

Describe the South East Asian City Model and what is another name for it?

Also called the McGee Model. It's mostly found in costal cities because of trade. Development starts in the port zone and extends out. Squatter areas are segregated from the wealthy areas that extend out in one zone.

54

What city is the Burgess model modeled after?

Chicago in the 1920s

55

What is the model with the rings called?

The Concentric Zone Model.

56

Describe the characteristics of each region of the Concentric Zone Model

A= The Core/ CBD
B= The zone of transition- Warehouses, poor quality, housing, industry, etc
C, D, and E= Housing quality increases as you get further from the CBD

57

Who developed the Sector Model?

Homer Hoyt

58

Describe the Sector Model

As a city grows, it spreads out int zones/ sectors from the center. Patterns develop based on social groups, transportation lines, income, etc. Lower class housing is in a sector along trolley and rail lines. The upper class housing extends out in one zone/ wedge separated from the lower class housing

59

What are the three US land use models?

Concentric Zone Model, Sector Model, and the Multiple Nuclei Model

60

Who developed the Multiple Nuclei Model?

Harris and Ullman