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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (61)
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What does CBD stand for?

Central business district


What percent of land area is the CBD on and why?

The CBD is on less than 1% of the urban land area – there's a high concentration of services due to agglomeration


What are the three types of services?

Consumer, business, and public services


What are consumer services?

Retailers with a high threshold (concerts, restaurants, etc)


What are business services?

Law firms, banks, offices, etc.


What are public services?

Government offices


What is excluded from the CBD and why?

Industrial and residential buildings (but the residential part is changing). This is due to high land costs


What are cities converting riverfronts from and to?

They're converting from industry to entertainment, leisure, tourism, and parks


What trend is reversing in the cities?

The residential trend is reversing. This is called re-urbanization – people are returning to the CBD


What leads to vertical geography and what is it?

Lack of space and high land costs leads to vertical geography – skyscrapers


What is the only CBD in the US without skyscrapers?

Washington DC


Why doesn't Washington DC have skyscrapers?

Because by law, no office building can be higher than the capital dome (there have been a few exceptions)


What is the CBD?



What are underground CBD is and where/why do they exist?

Some cities provide services underground due to competition for space, transportation needs, utilities, and weather.


What's an example of an underground CBD?

Toronto's path


What are CBD's like in North America?

CBD's are more commercial and less residential


What are CBD's like everywhere else except for North America and Europe?

CBD's tend to be more residential mixed in with commercial areas to support the population


What are the CBDs in Europe like?

They have more markets and less traffic (cars are banned in many cities)


Why did american suburbs grow rapidly after WW2?

The post war baby boom caused many large families and the need for affordable housing, so with the help of the rising use of cars and interstates, people left the overcrowded cities for the suburbs


What is Levittown, NY, and why is it significant?

It was the first major suburb development. It was started in 1949 by William Levitt who produced up to 150 houses a week, which caused the price of housing to go down (the average cost was $60 a month with no down payment). With the help of the rise of the use of interstates and cars, these houses filled up quickly.


What is an epoch?

A significant time period in history


What was Borchert's main idea?

That the urbanization process in the U.S. is based on epochs of transportation related technology


What are the epochs of transportation technology?

The Sail-Wagon Epoch, the Iron Horse Epoch, Steel Rail Epoch, the Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch, and the High-Tech Epoch


What left a void in CBDs and why?

Suburbanization left a void in many CBDs because retail services like large department stores left (they followed the people)


What does placelessness have to do with suburbanization?

Suburbanization led to the growth of "big box" stores/chains and because of this they've replaced many small "mom and pop" stores


Who stayed in the city as people moved out into the suburbs?

Many african-americans left the south during WW2 for northern cities to escape segregation and find jobs. After many white residents left the city and minorities moved in, many landlords allowed their houses to crumble.


What fueled the white flight?

Banks, mortgage companies, and real estate agents helped fuel the white flight from the cities into the suburbs


What is redlining? Give an example

Selectively refusing to grant loans or home insurance to people in certain areas. Ex: Philadelphia in the 40s and 50s


What is blockbusting?

When real estate agents convinced white residents that African Americans were moving into the neighborhood and should sell (at a financial loss) and move out to the suburbs immediately.


What are the three issues associated with suburbanization and re-urbanization?

Environmentalism, urban sprawl, and loss of unique identity/ placelessness