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Brain stem includes

Medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain

1

Neural plate

Flat plate of ectodermal tissue on dorsal surface of embryo

2

Notochord

Rod shaped, influences neural plate in embryo

3

Neural folds

Lateral sides of neural plate elevate to become waves

4

Neural groove

Center of the neural plate, the neural crest is the top of the fold

5

Neural tube

Neural crests fuse together to create the neural tube. Becomes the brain and spinal cord.

6

Neural crest cells

Separate from neural crests and create sensory, autonomic and enteric neurons

7

Forebrain, hindbrain, midbrain

Pouches that develop in embryo brain

8

Telencephalon

Embryo- becomes cerebrum and diencephalon

9

Midbrain of embryo

Stays single unit, mesencephalon

10

Hindbrain of embryo

Divides into the metencephalon becoming pons and cerebellum

11

Myelencephalon

From hindbrain- becomes medulla oblongata

12

Medulla oblongata

Most inferior part of brainstem. Vital reflexes: heart rate, blood vessel diameter, respiration, swallowing, vomiting, hiccuping, coughing, sneezing

13

Pyramids

Medulla oblongata. Prominent enlargements

14

Olives

Medulla oblongata. Oval structures protrude anterior surface. Balance, coordination, modulation of sound

15

Cranial nerves of medulla oblongata

V trigeminal, VII facial, IX glossopharyngeal, X vagus, XI accessory, XII hypoglossal

16

Pons

Superior to medulla oblongata. Has ascending and descending tracts.

17

Pontine nuclei

Pons. Relays information from cerebrum to cerebellum. Sleep center, REM, respiratory

18

Midbrain cranial nerves

Smallest region. III oculomotor, IV trochlear, V trigeminal

19

Pons cranial nerves

V trigeminal, VI abducens, VII facial, VIII vestibulocochlear

20

Tectum

Roof of midbrain.

21

Corpora quadrigemina

Four nuclei mounds on tectum

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Colliculus

Each mound that makes up corpora quadrigemina.

23

Superior colliculi

Pair of colliculus. Receive sensory input from visual, auditory, tactile, reflex movements of head, and cerebrum

24

Inferior colliculi

Pair of colliculus. Hearing, auditory pathway in CNS

25

Tegmentum

Midbrain. Ascending tracts

26

Red nuclei

Midbrain, tegmentum. Unconscious regulation and coordination.

27

Cerebral peduncles

Midbrain, ventral to tegmentum. Descending tracts.

28

Substantial nigra

Midbrain, black substance between tegmentum and cerebral peduncles. Muscle tone and coordination

29

Reticular formation

Several loosely packed nuclei scattered throughout brainstem. Receives sensory from many axons, especially in face. Alertness, consciousness, sleep wake cycle