Chapter 12-Teaching Social And Cultural Issues in Counseling Flashcards Preview

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What challenges must instructors be prepared for in teaching multicultural counseling?

1. Challenges of upending students’ assumptions and established mores.
2. Self-challenge
3. Willingness to embrace conflict and uncertainty.


RE: multicultural counseling, Robert Kegan (1998) states students must:

Decide whether they “have culture” or culture “has them.”

Understand cultural relativism


What are students ask to do in learning multicultural counseling?

1. Give up allegiances to the customary cultural practices, rituals, and rules for living.
2. Transform into a new persona
3. Multicultural competency (awareness, knowledge, and skills)


What are 3 notions that guide culturally alert counseling?

1. constructivism
2. comprehensiveness
3. diversity versus disparity


What are 3 other notions that guide culturally alert counseling?

4. competencies
5. interplay of culture-universality and individuality
6. teaching process: experience, personalization, and reflection


How does social construction define culture?

All individuals are ultimately embedded in discourses or assumptions about what is good, true, and beautiful for them.


RE: multicultural counseling, awareness of our social construction makes us:

reflective about our assumptions—including our privileges, oppressions, and hierarchies.


Describe the 2nd guiding notions of multicultural counseling: comprehensiveness

1. Broad definition of culture-all groups are “cultured”
2. All social groups that humans belong to, ones that form a person’s values and assumptions
3. Culture is also external, affects how others see and act toward us.


Describe the third guiding notion: diversity versus disparity

Discussion of power and differential access


Describe fourth guiding notion: multicultural competencies

Counselors move beyond comprehension to culturally alert behaviors and practice.
Counselors learn range of culturally alert counseling skills in accessibility, assessment, and intervention.


Describe the fifth guiding notion of multicultural counseling.

Universality (human qualities we all share) and individuality (temperament and personality), are important.


Describe the sixth guiding notion of multicultural counseling.

Relates to the teaching process
Powerful learning incorporates experience, personalization, and reflection as learning modes.



1. Multicultural Counseling and Therapy Theory (MCT)
2. Multicultural Social Justice Criticism (MSJC)


What is common about both multicultural counseling theories?

Ask counselors to think about clients’ contexts, be critical about the social arrangements, not just the individual choices, that result in clients’ self-doubt, lack of resources, and barriers


What 2 themes pervade multicultural counseling frameworks?

1. Importance of context
2. Ability to be critical


Describe one key dimension of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy Theory

1. Emphasis on context versus the individual
2. Both counselor and client identities embedded in individual, family, and cultural contexts.
3. Cultural identity theory: clients vary in attitudes toward self, others of same group, different group, and dominant group.


What is another key point of MCT?

1. Matching practice with culture
2. Counseling enhanced when strategies are consistent with cultural background of client.
3. Some cultural groups have multiple helpers.
4. Move beyond “repair” or “correction,” toward liberation of consciousness (see oneself in terms of cultural context)


RE: Multicultural Social Justice Criticism, what should all counselors be alert to?

1. Discrimination, domination, and subordination, including in writings and actions of teachers of multicultural counseling.
2. Combine activism and scholarship.


What does MSJC do for marginalized persons?

1. Empowers them
2. Students speak from experiences within the context of their own culture stories rather than just scholarship of academicians.
3. Open dialogue among all


The course in multicultural counseling can be divided into four units:

1. Introduction to Basic Notions (Culture, Social Justice)
2. Ethnicity and Race
3. Nonethnic Cultural Groups
4. Skills for Multicultural Counseling



Orient students to the what, why, and how of culture


Describe and define culture in terms of the multicultural counseling course.

1. A group’s way of adapting to environments and caring for each other.
2. Internalized norms and external expressions-EX: school cultures, work cultures, family cultures, neighborhood cultures


What are 3 possible activities for introducing the major themes of the multicultural counseling course?

1. Students’ thinking about their own multiple cultural identities
2. Range of possible attitudes toward cultural diversity
3. The Cultural De-Centering Activity-determine their relationship with their cultures, to decide whether “culture has them” or they “have culture.”


Describe the topic of Social Justice in the multicultural counseling course.

1. Hierarchies, power, and differential access to social capital presented-need to be accessible for a broad audience.


The first premise for teaching social justice is:

Social injustice is related to the central work of counseling.
Often an antecedent to mental health disorder and an obstacle to human development


Several studies have found that racist experiences are correlated with:

1. increased alcohol consumption
2. depressive symptoms
3.lower self-esteem
4. problems with memory and concentration
5. difficulty trusting people who are racially similar to perpetrators
6. self-blame, hyperarousal, and anxiety


The second premise regarding the need for teaching social justice is:

counselors have a moral and ethical obligation to take action against oppression.


How did Goldenberg define oppression?

1. Social imperatives/practices aimed at containing or otherwise limiting the development of people
2. Individual is “alienated, isolated, and insulated from the society of which he nominally remains a member”


When oppressive experiences are perpetuated in an individual’s life what psychological processes can occur?

1. Learned helplessness
2. internalization of feelings of inferiority
3. identification with the oppressor
4. self-fulfilling prophesies
5. groupthink
6. stereotypes


What are 2 Social Justice–Oriented Objectives for the multicultural counseling course?

1. Micro-objectives: specific knowledge or skills learners should acquire.

2. Macro-objectives: understanding the relationship between counseling and its larger sociopolitical context.