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Flashcards in Chapter 12 - Personality Deck (43)
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1

What is trait theory?

In psychology, trait theory is an approach to the study of human personality. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion

2

What are psychodynamic theories?

include all diverse theories descended from the work of Freud, which focus on the unconscious mental forces

3

What is personality?

An individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioural traits
Uniqueness or distinctiveness
(what differentiates one another)
Consistancy of thinking, feeling and responding

4

What are the goals of trait theory?

- identify basic traits that are stable and enduring
- measure and predict individual difference

5

Who came up with 4500 possible personality traits?

Allport

6

Cattel used Allport research as a starting point to break down the list to how many traits through factor analysis?

16 traits through factor analysis

7

The most current model has what 5 personality traits?

Extroversion
Agreeability
Conscientiousness
Neuroticism
Openness

8

What is extroversion?

characteristics like talkative, sociable, fun-loving, affectionate

9

What is agreeability?

sympathetic, warm, trusting, cooperative

10

What is conscientiousness?

ethical, dependable, productive, purposeful

11

Wat is neuroticism?

anxious, insecure, guilt-prone, self-conscious

12

What is openness?

Daring, nonconforming, unusual broad interests, imaginitive

13

What are the negatives of trait theory?

- Only predicts a range of behaviour
- Doesn't explain behaviour just labels
- Too few traits to account for human variation

14

What are the 2 main points of the psychodynamic perspective?

1. Much of what motivates our behaviour is below our awareness
• Iceburg metaphor (describes the human mind; the part above the surface is what we are aware of and the part just beneath is the preconscious memories and stored knowledge, and the part deepest is the unconscious level)
2. Early experiences shape our personalities (he thought that our personality was shaped under the age of 5, however your personality continues to develop through out your life)

15

Explain the iceberg metaphor.

Describes the human mind
- the part of the iceberg that is above the surface is what we are aware of
- part of the iceberg just beneath the surface is the preconscious memory
- the deepest part of the ice burg is the unconscious level

16

What are the three components of Freud's structure of personality?

Id- primal urges want satisfying
Ego- mediator (wants id and superego happy)
Super-ego- (develops around age of 5) seeks moral principles/ perfection

17

What does internal conflict result in?

anxiety

18

What are some characteristics of defence mechanisms?

- are unconscious
- they all involve self deception

19

Name the (7) defence mechanisms?

1. Repression
2. Projection
3. Displacement
4. Reaction formation
5. Rationalization
6. Denial
7. Sublimation

20

Define repression defence mechanism.

bury threatening content into the unconscious

21

Define projection defence mechanism.

attribute unacceptable impulse to someone else
Example; woman who haven’t had sex in a long time, who wants to engage in sexual activity, but she instead of acknowledging she says ‘men only have one thing on their mind’

22

Define displacement defence mechanism.

divert impulse from real target to safe substitute
example; you want to strangle your boss but instead you go home and yell at your brother

23

Define reaction formation

when you bury forbidden impulses and instead display the opposite
example homophobic men actually are attracted to men themselves (studies suggest correlation)

24

Define rationalization.

offers plausible explanation for unacceptable behaviour

25

Define denial.

refuse to acknowledge anxiety provoking facts

26

Define sublimation.

re-channeling unacceptable impulses into acceptable or laudable behaviour

27

What does laudable mean?

deserving praise or commedation

28

What were the criticism of Freudian theories?

- poor testability
- over reliance on case studies
- biased against woman

29

What was the behaviouralistic perspective of BP Skinner on personality?

- on personality is behaviour, what you see is what you get
- uniqueness of learning is due to unique history of reinforcement
- consistency of learning due to consistant pattern of reinforcement
=environmental determinism is only part of the puzzle

30

What was the social-cognitive perspective of personality (Bandura)?

-Considers environment AND internal factors like thoughts and beliefs and expectations
(Its not just the consequences but what we believe the consequences will be)
- Reciprocal determinism (reciprocal means give and take)
- Is not a one way relationship internal factors
- Personal/cognitive factors, behaviour, and environment all influence one another
- self-efficacy is belief in ones capability; affect goal directed behaviour, and changes based on experience