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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (15)
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1

Adaptation

An anatomical, physiological, or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the environment

Result from evolutionary change (natural selection)

2

Acclimatization

Physiological responses to changes in the environment that occur during an individuals lifetime.

Ex: tanning

3

Developmental acclimatization

Irreversible and results from exposure to an environmental challenge during growth and development

Ex: skin pigment

4

Polymorphisms

Traits that differ in expression between populations and individuals

Traits with more than one allele

Expressed in the phenotype as the result of gene action (as in ABO) or they can exist solely at the DNA level within noncoding regions

5

Polytypic

Referring to species composed of local populations that differ from one another with regard to the expression of one or more traits

6

Biological determinism

The concept that phenomena, including various aspects of behavior (intelligence, values, morals) are governed by biological (genes) factors

The false belief that there is a relationship between physical traits and certain behavioral traits: like skin color

7

Eugenics

the philosophy of “race improvement” through the forced sterilization of member of some groups and increased reproduction among other

Pure race can mate with inferior races

An overly simplified, often racist view that’s now discredited

8

Homeostasis

A condition of balance, or stability, within a biological system, maintained by the interaction of physiological mechanisms that compensate for changes (internal and external)

9

Bergman’s rule

States that bodies with increased mass or volume to surface areas are optimal for cold climates

10

Allen’s rule

States that shape of the body, especially appendages, determine adaptation to cold or hot climates

Cold climate= shorter appendage prevents heat loss

Hot climate= longer appendage promote heat loss

11

Epigenetics

Changes in phenotype that are not related to changes in underlying DNA and that may resign from the i retraction between the genotype and the environment

12

Protector from ultraviolet radiation ?

Melanin

13

What causes rickets?

An insufficient amount of vitamin D

14

Studies have shown that UV radiation rapidly depletes?

Folate

15

Francis Galton

Popularized eugenics among 19th century Europeans