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Where do services make up the majority of employment?

MDCs (almost 80% in the US)


What determines the percent of employment in the tertiary sector?

Where the people live that can afford services


What is the Gini Coefficient?

A visual representation of the income distribution of a nation's residents


What are the three categories of services?

Consumer services, business services, and public services


What are examples of consumer services?

Retail, hotels, restaurants, etc


What are examples of business services

Law, accounting, architecture, banking, real estate, etc


What are examples of public services

State and local government, police, fire, etc


What controls the location of consumer services?

It follows a regular pattern based on the size of settlements


What theory do services follow and what does that accomplish?

Services follow the Central Place Theory to maximize the location to customers


Who proposed the Central Place Theory and when?

Walter Christaller in the 1930s


What is central place?

The market (for the exchange of goods and services)


What is hinterland?

The market area (where the customers are)


What is the threshold?

Them minimum number of people needed to support the service of/ in the area


What is range?

The maximum distance people are willing to travel to obtain a service


What is the best location for a service?

Where it minimizes the distance to the service for the largest number of people


What shape did Christaller use and why?

He used hexagons as a compromise instead of circles and squares because circles and squares created overlaps and gaps.


What does central place theory describe?

The spatial distribution and size of cities and towns


What do central places compete against and what does it create?

Central places compete against one another creating a pattern of services and settlements


What is Hotelling's Law?

That services tend to cluster and that competitors want to be as close to each other and the customers as possible


Services fall under what sector of the economy?



What is the gravity model?

It's used to predict the degree of interaction between 2 places (the pull)


What does the strength of the bond between two places depend on?

Population and distance


What is the rank-size rule and what kinds of countries follow it?

MDCs tend to follow this rule. It's when the proportion of small cities to large cities within a country follows a pattern; The second largest city is 1/2 the size of the first, the third largest city 1.3 the size of the first, and so on


What are some countries where the rank-size rule is found?

Italy, Canada, and Australia


What are primate cities?

The one major city that serves as the dominant political, economic, and social force (at least 2x as big as the size of the next largest city)


What are some examples of countries with primate cities?

France, England, Spain, Mexico, Thailand (bankok is 40x the size of the next largest city), Argentina


What are some implications of the rank-size rule?

Services are evenly distributed, Limits the need to go to one location, but no common central area or large market/ no centripetal force


What are some implications of the Primate City Rule?

There's a dominant city/ pull factor, all services you need are centrally located, global and regional trading power, creates congestion/ traffic, and unequal distribution of wealth and power


What are forward capitals?

Not all primate cities are world capital cities, some are foward cities, where the captial once was and now isn't. Ex: Brazil, US, Pakistan, etc


Why would you move the captial?

Centrally located, to demonstrait power and presteige, and can be moved to attract people to a new area