Chapter 11 - The Muscular System Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - The Muscular System Notes Deck (104)
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1

Lever

(Bone)
- Rigid structure

2

Fulcrum

(Joint)
- Fixed point

3

Muscles (produce what)

- Apply the forces that produce MOVEMENT

4

Basic Muscle Concept

When a muscle contracts (shortens), a force is generated that acts on bones (or surrounding tissues) to create motion

5

Components of typical skeletal muscle

1. Origin
2, Insertion
3. Muscle Belly
4. Tendons

6

Origin

- "Fixed" end; may be called the head of the muscle

7

Insertion

- "Moveable end

8

Muscle Belly

- The largest portion of the muscle. It lies between the origin and insertion

9

Tendons

- Attach muscles to bones

10

Aponeurosis

- (Sheet-like)
- Is a thin, flat tendon located where the muscles attach to large flat regions on the body

11

Synergists

- Muscles working together to cause a movement

12

Agonist

- Prime Mover
- If one muscle in a group does most of the work involved

13

Antagonists

- Muscles that cause a movement opposite that of the synergists
- flexors/extensosr
- adductors/abductors

14

Stabilizers

- Stabilize the joints

15

Number of Muscles Identified

- Over 700
- Averaging just over 3 per every bone

16

Naming Schema for Muscles

1. Origin and Insertion
2. Size
3. Shape
4. Direction of muscle fibers
5. Location
6. Number of Heads
7. Action/Function

17

Naming: Origin & Insertion

- named landmarks found on the bones
- origin is fixed end
- insertion moveable end

18

Naming: Size

1. Maximus
2. Minimus
3. Brevis
4. Major
5. Minor
6. Longus/Longissimus
7. Teres

19

Naming: Shape

1. Triangular
2. Trapezoid
3. Saw-Toothed
4. Rhomboid
5. Round

20

Naming: Direction of Muscle Fibers

1. Rectus: runs parrell to the midline of the body
2. Perpendicular: runs at a right angle to the midline of the body
3. Angle

21

Naming: Location

-May indicate a nearby bone or body region

22

Naming: Number of Heads

- multiple heads or attachments

23

Naming: Action/Function

- Terms such as FLEXOR, EXTENSOR, ABDUCTOR, and ADDUCTOR are all added to muscle names to indicate the kind of movement generated by the muscle.

24

Muscle Shapes

1. Pennate: feather-shaped
2. Parallel: fasciculi run in line w/tendon
3, Convergent: triangle shaped
4. Circular: circle shaped

25

Fascicles

- Muscle fibers are grouped into bundles called Fascicles

26

Levers

- Three classes of levers with respect to skeletal muscle function:
1. Class I - see saw R-F-AF
2. Class II - loaded wheel barrel F - R - AF
3. Class III (most common in the body)
ladder against building - F - AF - R

27

Frontalis

-Forehead
-Raises eye brows, wrinkles forehead

28

Orbicularis oculi

- Around the eyelids
- Closes the eyes

29

Buccinator

- Lines the cheeks
- Compresses cheek

30

Orbicularis oris

- Around the lips
- Purses the lips