Flashcards in Chapter 10 Test Deck (51)
Who identified how many agricultural regions and when?
In 1936 Derwent Whittlesey identified 11 main agricultural regions
How many agricultural regions are important to LDCs/ developing countries and how many are important to MDCs/ developed countries?
5 are important to developing countries and 6 are important in developed countries
What are the 5 types agriculture in LDCs/ developing countries?
Shifting cultivation, pastoral nomadism, intensive subsistence farming (wet rice dominant), intensive subsistence (crops other than wet rice), and plantation farming
Describe shifting cultivation
It's also called "slash and burn" and land is cleared/swidden every 2 years before they move to another field. It's practiced on the largest percentage of land worldwide. Ownership is often communal.
What type of agriculture is often communal?
Shifting cultivation / slash and burn
What type of agriculture is practiced on the largest percentage of land worldwide?
Shifting cultivation/ slash and burn
What are the negative effects of shifting cultivation?
Deforestation, pollution, and loss of biodiversity due to the fact that land has to be cleared every 2-3 years.
What factors determine what is produced, where it's produced, and who produces it?
Climate, culture, economics (MDCs and LDCs), and political situation
What is pastoral nomadism and what is a specific type?
Pastoral nomadism is the herding of domesticated animals and is mostly in the middle east / north africa.Transhumance is a type of pastoral nomadism that involves seasonal migration.
Why is pastoral nomadism dying out?
It's dying out due to technology, urbanism, and government pressures
What are some negative effects of pastoral nomadism?
Territorial disputes, competition for resources, and desertification due to overgrazing and human activity
Where is shifting cultivation typically practiced?
It's practiced in the rainforests of south america, africa, and southeast asia
What is intensive subsistence farming (wet rice dominant)?
It's the intensive use of a small area of farmland. It often uses double cropping, where 2 crops are grown in 1 year on the same plot of land.
Where is intensive subsistence (wet rice) farming typically practiced?
It's common in south and southeast asia and is common in densely populated areas. It's practiced by the biggest number of people worldwide.
What type of farming is practiced by the largest number of people in the world?
Intensive subsistence (wet rice dominant)
What is intensive subsistence (wet rice not dominant) farming and what is a drawback?
It's the farming of crops (usually wheat and barley) that involves crop rotation. There typically isn't enough precipitation in the summer/ winter - too harsh [of a climate].
Where is intensive subsistence (wet rice not dominant) farming typically practiced?
Central India and Northeastern China
What are some negative effects of intensive subsistence farming?
It's intensive so there's a significant impact on humans and the environment. One small problem could lead to widespread famine. It also causes health issues due to exposure to animal waste and vulnerability to disease.
Where is plantation farming typically found?
It's typically found in tropical regions such as Latin America, Africa, and Asia. It is common in LDCs, but it often owned by European and U.S. companies
What products are farmed on plantation farms?
Cotton, sugarcane, coffee, coco, bananas, tobacco, and tea
What are some negative effects of plantation farming?
It's usually in sparsely populated areas, which can cause isolation for the workers who are brought in and housed on site. It inefficiently uses land since only 1 crop is grown (the most profitable). Profits often go to international corporations and workers often have poor living and working conditions. Child slavery is common.
What are the 6 main types of agriculture practiced in MDCs?
Mixed crop/ livestock farming, dairy, grain farming, ranching, mediterranean, and commercial gardening/ truck farming
Where is mixed crop/ livestock farming most common and what is grown?
It's most common in the US and Europe. The midwestern US "corn belt". Crop rotation is used to grow corn, soybeans, and wheat.
Where is dairy farming most common and why?
The "milkshed"- the producing region that supplies to the closest market. The farther away from the market the more likely the milk is to be sold for processing. Common outside heavily populated areas due to demand.
Where is grain farming most common and what is grown?
Grain is grown- the seeds from wheat, barely, oats, etc. It's sold to manufacturers to produce the food we eat. Grown in the "wheat belt" in the Northwestern U.S.
What is ranching and what is the difference between it and pastoral nomadism?
It's the commercial grazing of livestock. It's different from pastoral nomadism because the difference is that they want to be part of the link in the meat processing industry. Due to urbanization, feedlots are more often used than they used to be.
Where is mediterranean agriculture most common and what is grown?
There must be a specific climate. It can be found in Southern Europe, North Africa, Chile, South Africa, California, and Australia. Olives and grapes are the most commonly grown.
What are the 6 drawbacks to agriculture in MDCs?
It tends to use more land, there is a larger impact on the environment (large farms, pesticides), water consumption is high, large use of natural resources (oil and fuel), processed food (preservatives, high calorie), and the access to organic and healthful foods is sometimes limited and/or expensive.
What is a food desert?
An area defined by the USDA as a place with little or no access to fresh, affordable food (usually between 1-10 miles)