Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (24)
changes that occur across the lifespan (physical, cognitive, social, behavioral)
What are the infant reflexes?
Rooting: orient themselves to mouth stimulation
Moro: reaching arms out then in, when the support of
the head is lost
Grasping: elicited by stimulating the palm
What are the stages of early motor development and when they occur?
Holding head, then chest (0.5 - 3 months)
Rolling over (2.5 months)
Sitting with support (5.5 months)
Crawling (5.5 months)
Standing with support then without (7.5 - 11.5 months)
Walking (12 months)
What are the brain changes that occur in early development?
myelination, synaptogenesis, synaptic pruning
development of myelin surrounding axons
formation of new synaptic connections between neurons
weak connections are lost
What are the processes associated with learning?
Assimilation: putting new information into belief system that exists
Accommodation: new information, requires a belief system to adjust
What are the 4 stages of cognitive development?
Sensorimotor (birth - 2)
Preoperational (2 - 7)
Concrete operations (7 - 11)
Formal operations (12 - adult)
What are the characteristics of the sensorimotor stage?
knowing is seeing, symbolic thought emerges, object permanence (8 months)
What are the characteristics of the preoperational stage?
thinking through words and image, unable to understand conservation, decenter, or reverse actions, egocentric
What are the characteristics of the concrete operations stage?
conservation is understood, able to decenter and reverse, difficulties with abstract problems
content that is not seen or manipulated
Zone of proximal development
difference between child's independent needs and what can be done with help
attentive approach where teacher matches guidance to learners needs
What are the characteristics of the formal operations stage?
concrete and abstract reasoning, can think hypothetically, thinking becomes increasingly systematic
Who came up with the zone of proximal development and scaffolding?
What are the cognitive abilities that change gradually?
attention, memory, working memory, long-term memory, processing, metacognitive abilities
What was Harlow's belief about attachment?
it develops for security (contact comfort)
What was Bowlby's belief about attachment?
it is biological/innate for infant and caregiver
What did Ainsworth believe about attachment?
it develops through interaction
What are the 3 attachment styles and who developed them?
Secure: child checks in but explores, distressed when left with stranger, seeks comfort when parent returns
Anxious/Ambivalent: child is clingy, upset when left, seeks and resists comfort when parent returns (stays upset)
Avoidant: shows no need for parent, unconcerned when left, doesn't seek comfort when parent returns
when youth internalize the conditional approach producing unstable self-esteem