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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (24)
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1

Development

changes that occur across the lifespan (physical, cognitive, social, behavioral)

2

What are the infant reflexes?

Rooting: orient themselves to mouth stimulation
Moro: reaching arms out then in, when the support of
the head is lost
Grasping: elicited by stimulating the palm

3

What are the stages of early motor development and when they occur?

Holding head, then chest (0.5 - 3 months)
Rolling over (2.5 months)
Sitting with support (5.5 months)
Crawling (5.5 months)
Standing with support then without (7.5 - 11.5 months)
Walking (12 months)

4

What are the brain changes that occur in early development?

myelination, synaptogenesis, synaptic pruning

5

Myelination

development of myelin surrounding axons

6

Synaptogenesis

formation of new synaptic connections between neurons

7

Synaptic pruning

weak connections are lost

8

What are the processes associated with learning?

Assimilation: putting new information into belief system that exists
Accommodation: new information, requires a belief system to adjust

9

What are the 4 stages of cognitive development?

Sensorimotor (birth - 2)
Preoperational (2 - 7)
Concrete operations (7 - 11)
Formal operations (12 - adult)

10

What are the characteristics of the sensorimotor stage?

knowing is seeing, symbolic thought emerges, object permanence (8 months)

11

What are the characteristics of the preoperational stage?

thinking through words and image, unable to understand conservation, decenter, or reverse actions, egocentric

12

What are the characteristics of the concrete operations stage?

conservation is understood, able to decenter and reverse, difficulties with abstract problems

13

Abstract

content that is not seen or manipulated

14

Zone of proximal development

difference between child's independent needs and what can be done with help

15

Scaffolding

attentive approach where teacher matches guidance to learners needs

16

What are the characteristics of the formal operations stage?

concrete and abstract reasoning, can think hypothetically, thinking becomes increasingly systematic

17

Who came up with the zone of proximal development and scaffolding?

Vygotsky

18

What are the cognitive abilities that change gradually?

attention, memory, working memory, long-term memory, processing, metacognitive abilities

19

What was Harlow's belief about attachment?

it develops for security (contact comfort)

20

What was Bowlby's belief about attachment?

it is biological/innate for infant and caregiver

21

What did Ainsworth believe about attachment?

it develops through interaction

22

What are the 3 attachment styles and who developed them?

Secure: child checks in but explores, distressed when left with stranger, seeks comfort when parent returns
Anxious/Ambivalent: child is clingy, upset when left, seeks and resists comfort when parent returns (stays upset)
Avoidant: shows no need for parent, unconcerned when left, doesn't seek comfort when parent returns
Ainsworth

23

Introjection

when youth internalize the conditional approach producing unstable self-esteem

24

Inductive discipline

activating empathy by explaining consequences, explain the rationale for decisions, support autonomy, allow choice whenever possible