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Complete Replacement/ Out-of-Africa Model

Modern H. Sapiens first evolved in Africa and hen spread to Asia and Europe replacing archaic H. Sapiens


Multi regional continuity model

The transition to modernity took place regionally and without involving replacement

Gene exchange between the distinct evolutionary lines (H. sapiens and H. Erectus)


Assimilation- or partial replacement model

Modern humans evolved first in Africa, then spread to Europe and Asia

Once hey arrived modern humans underwent gene flow with Neanderthals


What did assimilation-partial replacement led to?

Genetic diversity in modern H. Sapiens sapiens


Anatomical characteristics associated with bipedalism

Foramen magnum is directly beneath the skull

S-shaped spine
Longer legs than arms
Non opposable big toe

Pelvis is short and broad (bowl-shaped)
Thighbones that angle in towards the knees
directed to side of the body

Double-arched foot


Anatomical characteristics associated with arboreal adaptations

Quadruped foramen magnum is more towards the back of the skull

Pelvis is long, directed toward the back of the body


Environments that brought about the 1st bipedal hominins

Patchy forests fragmented and food became dispersed


Rodman and McHenry’s patchy forest hypothesis (bipedalism evolved)

As forests became patchy and fragmented, bipedalism freed the hands to pick up food allowing for both tree and ground food resources to be exploited

More energy-efficient


Owen lovejoy’s provisioning hypothesis (bipedalism evolved)

Bipedalism freed Dad’s hands and enhanced the survival of the mother and her offspring by bringing home the bacon and being the protective patriarch



4-1 mya

Seven species

Relatively small brains
Small canines
Vary in size and robusticity
From small and gracile to large and robust


Laetoli site in Tanzania

Footprints demonstrated that the foot of afarensis was humanlike in having:

A rounded heel
A non divergent big toe
A double arch


Premodern Homo sapiens

Consider to be the immediate predecessors to modern Homo sapiens


Wood spears challenge?

Some assumptions about the hunting capabilities of premodern humans


Shanidar cave is extraordinary in that one buried individual

Had severed cranial trauma and loss of the use of the right limb and yet lived beyond these trauma, presumably cared for by others


Supposed grace goods found in Neanderthal burials include?

Bone and stone tools along with animal bones


Intermixing of the Neanderthal and the modern human lineages occurred ?

Between 80,000 and 50,000 years ago


The main effect of fluctuating climates in Africa during the Pleistocene was to change rainfall patterns

True or false



Neanderthals are a fully separate biological species from modern humans and therefore theoretically incapable of fertilely interbreeding with modern people

True or false




Another branch of hominins living side by side in Asia with Neanderthals and modern humans