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Who is John Quincy Adams?

-son of the former president ,and Monroe’s secretary of state


Who is Martin Van Buren?

-New York Senator, who helped organize the Democratic effort and urged Jackson to avoid monitoring devising issues


Who is Andrew Jackson?

-The hero of the 1820's to the 1840's. Was inaugurated in 1829.
-aka Old Hickory


Who is Henry Clay?

The chief advocate of this economic nationalism in congress. Created the American System.


What are the three parts of the American System?

1. Protective Tariffs
2. Renewal of the National Bank
3. Internal Improvements


What is a tariff?

A tax on imported goods


What is the Tariff of 1816?

America's first protectionist legislation. It encouraged some economic growth, and discouraged competition p, which meant higher consumer prices.


What are internal improvements?

Funding for roads, canals, and harbor developments that would bolster commerce and communication. They were the least successful aspect of the American System.


What is a caucus?

A closed meeting of party leaders


What is the "Corrupt Bargain"?

An underhanded deal to give Adams the presidency in return for making Henry Clay secretary.


Who is John C Calhoun?

-Of South Carolina, beat Jackson by a landslide.


What is the Spoils System?

A patronage that would endure for half a century, taking on a highway partisan political character. Basically rotation in the office.


What is the Tariff of Abominations?

-Dubbed this by the South; in 1828 Congress passed a new higher protective tariff with rates of up to 50% on some imports.
- the north favored it
-the south opposed it


What is nullification?

Whereby states could nullify or reject congressional acts they deemed unconstitutional


What is a Force Bill?

Gave the president war powers against South Carolina


What is the Compromise of 1833?

-Reduced the Tariff of 1832, making it acceptable to South Carolina.
-proposed by Henry Clay
-passed on March 1


What is the third party?

-Aka Anti-Masonic Party; arose shortly before the election, stimulated by the questionable activities of the Masonic Lodge and other secret societies.
-opposed Catholic immigration and supported federal funding for internal improvements.


What is a platform?

A written statement describing where the party stood on various issues


What is National Convention?

Where state delegates gathered to nominate the party's presidential and vice presidential candidates.


What is the Specific Circular of 1836?

-It ordered the prohibition of the use of anything except gold or silver coins or "hard money" for the purchase of public land.
-no one could use paper money to buy land
-made by Andrew Jackson


What is the Trail of Tears?

The Cherokees and the other Civilized Tribes were forcibly moved west to what is today Oklahoma. The hard journey from their homes resulted in the deaths of many Indians.


Who is William Henry Harrison?

-An old Indian Fighter, who was nominated by the Whigs to be president in 1840
-the hero of the Battle of Tippecanoe
-he was one of the oldest presidents
-died only a month after his election from pneumonia


Who is John Tyler?

-A states rights Virginian, friend of Henry Clay, and Harrison's running mate (Vice President).
- took office after Harrison's death


What is the Panic of 1819?

The collapse of cotton and the 2nd national bank


Who is Sequoyah?

Cherokee who developed a written Cherokee alphabet, allowing the Indians to publish newspapers and the Bible in their langauge


What is the Panic of 1837?

-The depression that occurred after Van Buren took office and the economy collapsed.


What caused the Panic of 1837?

-Jackson's economic policies and his failing malpractice
-irresponsible practices of the states bank
-wheat crop failure
-cotton prices


What is the Independent Treasury?

-Was to have only federal funds deposited in it, and only government employes were to manage it
-aka "sub treasury system"