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1

What Greek naturalist and philosopher wondered about learning and memory, motivation and emotion, perception and personality?

Aristotle

2

the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes

behaviorism

3

historically important perspective that emphasized human growth potential

humanistic psychology

4

the science of behavior and mental processes

psychology

5

the study of the mental processes, such as occur when we perceive, learn, remember, think, communicate, and solve problems

cognitive psychology

6

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with mental activity (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

cognitive neuroscience

7

anything a human or nonhuman animal does

behavior

8

Describe the three parts of the scientific attitude.

(1) curiosity about the world around us,
(2) skepticism about unproven claims and ideas, and
(3) humility about our own understanding. These three traits guide psychologists as they consider ideas and test them with scientific methods. Ideas that don’t hold up will then be discarded.

9

What event defined the start of scientific psychology?

Scientific psychology began in Germany in 1879, when Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory.

10

How did the cognitive revolution affect the field of psychology?

It led the field back to its early interest in mental processes and made them acceptable topics for scientific study.

11

The _________ perspective in psychology focuses on how behavior and thought differ from situation to situation and from culture to culture.

social-cultural

12

The _________ perspective emphasizes how we learn observable responses.

behavioral

13

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, uncovers hidden values, weighs evidence, and assesses conclusions

critical thinking

14

an approach that integrates different but complementary views from biological, psychological, and social-cultural viewpoints

biopsychosocial apparoach

15

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and handed down from one generation to the next

culture

16

"WEIRD" cultures

Western
Educated
Industrial
Rich
Democratic

17

the age-old controversy over the relative influence of genes and experience in the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's psychological science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.

nature-nurture issue

18

the principle that our mind processes information at the same time one separate conscious and unconscious tracks

dual processing

19

the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive

positive psychology

20

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we could have predicted it. (I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)

hindsight bias

21

Why, after friends start dating, do we often feel that we knew they were meant to be together?

We often suffer from hindsight bias–after we’ve learned a situation’s outcome, that outcome seems familiar and therefore obvious.

22

an explanation using principles that organize observations and predict behaviors or events

theory

23

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

hypothesis

24

a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study

operational definition

25

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding can be reproduced

replication

26

What does a good theory do?

1. It organizes observed facts.
2. It implies hypotheses that offer testable predictions and, sometimes, practical applications.
3. It often stimulates further research.

27

Why is replication important?

When others are able to repeat (replicate) studies and produce similar results, psychologists can have more confidence in the original findings.

28

a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

case study

29

We cannot assume that case studies always reveal general principles that apply to all of us. Why not?

Case studies focus on one individual or group, so we can’t know for sure whether the principles observed would apply to a larger population.

30

a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to change or control the situation

naturalistic observation