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manager

someone who accomplishes goals through other people

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organization

a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a continuous basis to achieve a common goal (hospitals, police departments, sports teams, military units, churches)

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planning

process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities

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organizing

determining which tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made

designing the work unit's structure

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leading

a function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts

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controlling

monitoring activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned ad correcting any serious deviations

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Mintzberg defined these three highly interrelated roles of managers:

interpersonal, informational, and decisional

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interpersonal roles

contains three roles: the figurehead, the leader, and the liaison

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figurehead role (interpersonal)

symbolic head, required to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature (hands out diplomas, touring a plant)

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leader role (interpersonal)

responsible for the motivation and direction of employees

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liaison role (interpersonal)

maintains a network of outside contacts who provide favors and information

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informational roles

three roles: monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson

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monitor (informational)

receives a wide variety of information; serves as nerve center of internal and external information of the organization

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disseminator (informational)

transmits information received from outsiders or from other employees to members of the organization

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spokesperson (informational)

transmits information to outsiders on organization's plans, policies, actions, and results; serves as expert on organization's industry

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decisional roles

four roles: entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator

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entrepreneur (decisional)

searches organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change

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disturbance handler (decisional)

responsible for corrective action when organization faces important, unexpected disturbances

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resource allocator (decisional)

makes or approves significant organizational decisions

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negotiator (decisional)

responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations

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What three skills to managers have to have to be effective?

human, technical, and conceptual skills

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human skills

the ability to work with, understand, motivate other people, both individually and in groups

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technical skills

ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise

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conceptual skills

the mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations

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managers all engage in the following four activities:

traditional management (decision making, planning, and controlling), communication (exchanging routine information and processing paperwork), HR management (motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, and staffing/training), and networking (socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders

26

Luthans and his associates showed the following about the difference between effective and successful management:

successful managers (ones who climb the ladder fastest) spend most of their time networking and a small portion communication with their people. Effective managers (quantity and quality of their performance/satisfaction of their people) communication was the biggest factor

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What was the ultimate takeaway from Luthans?

successful managers give almost the opposite emphases to traditional management, communication, HR management, and networking as do effective managers

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organizational behavior

field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying that knowledge toward improving the organization's effectiveness

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What three areas of expertise does OB focus on?

individuals, groups, and structure

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systematic study

looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence