Chapter 1 - Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Notes Deck (88)
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1

Biology is:

Study of Life

2

One of the Goals of Biology:

To discover the UNITY and PATTERNS that underlie the diversity of organisms

3

All living things have certain common characteristis

-organization
-responsiveness
-growth and differentiation
-reproduction
-movement
-metabolism and excretion

4

Anatomy is

The study of internal and external structures and the physical relationships among body parts.

5

Physiology is

the study of how living organisms perform vital functions. All specific functions are performed by specific structures.

6

Microscopic Anatomy

-established by the equipment used

7

Cytology

-analyze the internal structure of individual cells

8

Histology

Examine tissues, groups of cells that have specific functional roles

9

Tissues combine to form

Organs: anatomical unites with multiple functions

10

Organs combine to form

Organ Systems, groups of organs that function together

11

Gross Anatomy

Macroscopic Anatomy
-features that are visible without a microscope
Includes:
Surface Anatomy
Regional Anatomy
Systemic Anatomy

12

Developmental Anatomy

-Examine the changes in form that occur between conception and physical maturity.

13

Embryology

Study processes that occur during the first two months of development

14

Physiology can be approached:

cellular
organismal
systemic

15

Special Physiology

Study special organs

16

Pathological Physiology

study effects of diseases on organ or system functions

17

anatomical strucutres and physiological mechanisms are arranged in a series of

interacting levels of organization

18

what is responsible for the structure and functions of life

basic chemical charactersistics

19

what are organelles

small structures within cells that perform specific functions

20

what is the basic living unit of plants and animals and have many common characteristics

cells

21

what is a group of cells within a similar strucutre and function and their associated extracellular substances.

tissue

22

what are the 4 primary types of tissue

epithelial
connective
muscle
nervous

23

what are structures composed of two or more tissues that perform specific functions

organs

24

how many organ systems are there

11

25

what are the organ systems

integumentary
skeletal
muscular
nervous
endocrine
cardiovascular
lympthatic
respiratory
digestive
urinary
reproductive

26

What is the condition in which body functions, fluids, and other factors of the internal environment are maintained at levels suitable to support life

homeostasis

27

how do physiological systems preserve homeostasis

homeostatic regulation

28

autoregulation occurs when

the activites of a cell, tissue, organ, or organ system change automatically in response to an environmental changes

29

what results from the activities of the nervous or endocrine system

extrinsic regulation

30

homeostatis regulation usually involves:

a receptor - sensitive to a particular stimulus
a control center that receives and processes the info from the receptor
and effector whose activities are regulated by the control center and whose actions have a direct or indirect effect on the same stimulus