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1

classify satellies

  • satellite
    • artificial satellite
      • weather satellite

2

define satellite

Any object that rotates in on orbit around a planet is asatelliteof that
planet

3

define artificial satellite

 a space platform in earth’s orbit.

4

define weather satellite

A space vehicle that rotates in an orbit around the Earth,
which carries instruments to monitor the Earth and its atmosphere
For meteorologists, the weather satellite is an ‘eye in the sky’.

5

The first picture of .....................from space was obtained by the meteorologists on ............................, when the first weather satellite ..................... was launched.

clouds

1 April, 1960

TIROS‐I

6

The first picture of clouds from space was obtained by the meteorologists on 1
April, 1960, when the first weather satellite TIROS‐I was launched.
Since then the satellite meteorology grew rapidly, and now satellites have a

profound impact on the science of meteorology

7

talk about satellites the different satellites we have and a brief history about meteorology and satellite

  • Satellite –Any object that rotates in on orbit around a planet is asatellite of that planet, while an artificial satellite is aspace platformin earth’s orbit.
  • Weather Satellite –A space vehicle that rotates in an orbit around the Earth, which carries instruments to monitor the Earth and its atmosphere

For meteorologists, the weather satellite is an ‘eye in the sky’.

The first picture of clouds from space was obtained by the meteorologists on 1 April, 1960, when the first weather satellite TIROS‐I was launched.

Since then the satellite meteorology grew rapidly, and now satellites have a profound impact on the science of meteorology

8

what are the types of measuring and sensing devices. how are they classified

in‐situ(in direct contact)
or remote(not in direct contact)

 with regard to where they are relative to what they are sensing.

9

explain in-situ sensing/measuring devices

In‐situ sensing/measuring devices are in contact with whatever they are sensing.
A thermometer is a very common in‐situ sensor.
Numerous in‐situ sensing devices are used to measure meteorological conditions. These devices can be found at ground level, in the water, or in the air.

10

explain remote sensing devices

Remote sensing devices are not in direct contact with the objects they sense.
Remote sensinginvolves observing objects indirectly either actively or passively.

11

explain the types of remote sensors 

Active remote sensors emit electromagnetic waves that travel to an object
and are reflected back toward the sensor. Ex: radar and sonar

Passive remote sensors observe electromagnetic waves emitted by objects.
For us, sight is a passive remote sensor because light waves are scattered
toward our eyes.

12

talk about measuring and sensing devices in detail

Measuring and sensing devices are classified as eitherin‐situ(in direct contact) or remote(not in direct contact) with regard to where they are relative to what they are sensing.

  • In‐situ sensing/measuring devices are in contact with whatever they are sensing. A thermometer is a very common in‐situ sensor.
    • Numerous in‐situ sensing devices are used to measure meteorological conditions. These devices can be found at ground level, in the water, or in the air.
  • Remote sensing devices are not in direct contact with the objects they sense. Remote sensing involves observing objects indirectly either actively or passively.
    • • Active remote sensorsemitelectromagnetic waves that travel to an object and are reflected back toward the sensor. Ex: radar and sonar
    • • Passive remote sensors observe electromagnetic waves emitted by objects. For us, sight is a passive remote sensor because light waves are scattered toward our eyes.

13

why cant we observe some regions of the earth using insitu sensors 

Because water covers over 70% of the earth’s surface, there are vast regions
where surface observations can not be made.

14

mention how satellites are important with regards to covering the globe

The surface stations only measure atmospheric conditions at specific
locations/points and times. This network leaves gaps in weather information
both spatially (in space) on the order of several kilometers to thousands of
kilometers and temporally (in time) on the order of minutes to 12 hours.

Satellites can have almost continuous surveillance (both in space and time) of
the earth planet

15

mention how satellites changed the prediction of met conditions

Before weather satellites were used, severe storms, such as hurricanes and
typhoons, went unpredicted until they moved dangerously near inhabited areas.
Today, satellites spot these storms while they are still far out in the ocean and
can track them accurately and the meteorologists can see the evolution and
movement of storms in animated sequences on a computer screen.

16

mention the advantages of satellite observing system over the use of ground-based observational systems.

  • Global coverage including remote land areas and the oceans
  • High space and time resolution over large areas
  • Wide range of parameters may be measured
  • Simultaneous measurement of many parameters
  • Measurements continue through severe weather
  • Measurements throughout the depth of the atmosphere in some conditions

17

mention the disadvantages of satellite observing system over the use of ground-based observational systems.

  • Atmospheric, oceanic and hydrological parameters are not  measured directly
  • Instrument calibration and data reduction procedures require continual attention
  • Sensor failure results in total loss of data
  • Surface and lower atmosphere parameters may be only partially  measured in thick cloud
  • Very large amount of data to be processed and archived
  • Large capital outlay for launch of a satellite and for central  ground equipment
  • Users cannot modify data collection easily

18

name the first artifitial satellite in the world

Sputnik (launched in 1957)

19

Satellites with meteorological instruments were first launched in

the late 1950's

20

The first satellite completely dedicated to satellite meteorology, the ......................................... was launched on ................................... the life span was ..............

TIROS‐1(Televisionand Infrared Observational Satellite) was launched on 1 April 1960. The life span of this satellite was 79 days.

21

The first satellite completely dedicated to satellite meteorology, the TIROS‐1(Television and Infrared Observational Satellite) was launched on 1 April 1960. The life span of this
satellite was 79 days.
........................ additional TIROS satellites were
subsequently launched through ................

Nine

1965

22

The TIROS series were ......................... elevation orbit satellites

low

23

All the TIROS satellites have carried................................................... in adition to them several of the later TIROS spacecraft were equipped with

two small vidicon - type cameras

 radiometers or radiation sensors

24

what sensor came after the TIROS? when was it launched?

 the Nimbus series, Nimbus 1 was launched on 28 August, 1964.

25

The Nimbus satellites were the first

three‐axis stabilized meteorological satellites.

26

The Nimbus satellites were the first three‐axis stabilized meteorological satellites. This allowed the satellite sensors to

continuously point towards the earth. They were also the firstsun‐synchronoussatellites.

27

The Nimbus satellites were the first three‐axis stabilized meteorological satellites. This allowed the satellite sensors to continuously point towards the earth. They were also the firstsun‐synchronoussatellites.
................. more Nimbus satellites were subsequently
launched and provided ............................

Six

continuous coverage of the earth for the first time.

28

Last Nimbus satellite was launched in

 1978

29

The Nimbus series tested many new concepts that have lead to the in use today.

operational instruments

30

Nimbus‐3 carried 

two instruments designed to provide atmospheric soundings from space, the Satellite Infrared Spectrometer (SIRS) and the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS).