Chapter 1-Constructing Counselor Education Flashcards Preview

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What is significant learning?

Achievement of a set of specific counseling competencies
Set of positive attitudes toward the work of helping
What Schön (1991) defines as professional work—the use of judgment and considered action in ambiguous situations.


What 2 forms of complexity might counselor education take?

(1) a way of knowing that is reflexive and includes a tolerance for ambiguity
(2) the ability to be culturally relativistic.


For tolerance for ambiguity, what must counselors embrace?

uncertainty as an expected condition of the work.
“I must catch myself trying to be too complete,” (Robert Kegan)


In order to work with all clients, counselors must be able to

de-center from their cultural assumptions.


Walt Whitman framed this challenge in Leaves of Grass:

“Re-examine all you have been told at school or church, or in any books, and dismiss whatever insults your soul.”
ask individuals to self-authorize (Kegan, 1998) their values.


What does philosopher Richard Rorty (1989) challenges individuals to be?

culturally de-centered,
might have “been initiated into the wrong tribe”


Definition of constructivism

the communal act of making something, of putting together.


What does the constructivist perspective state?

humans do not “find” or “discover” knowledge, nor do they receive it from infallible authorities. Knowledge is continually created through conversations.


Constructivism is a method. True or false?

False-it is a way of understanding human meaning-making.


What is constructivism’s central premise?

individuals actively create the world as they experience it.


What do developmental constructivists emphasize?

the pre-understandings, or cognitive capacities, that individuals bring to experience.


The social-in-the-individual

internalized conceptions of the good and the beautiful


The individual-in-the social

ongoing public conversations in media, religion, literature, and culture


What does social constructionism emphasize?

the inevitably social, or communal, context of human meaning-making. All meaning is saturated in culture, history, place, and time.


example of the social construction of meaning

words humans use to describe their experience (Sinful, gay, mannerly)


Other obvious examples of socially constructed meanings

norms that guide humans’ thinking and behaving, such as cultural rules for interpersonal relations (e.g., greetings, politeness, honesty) and gender behavior


According to Gergen, what do social constructionists propose?

There are no ideas that are outside of time and place, or chronology and geography,


Define discourse

Any particular socialized meaning system that informs a person’s constructions.


Examples of discourse

Gender discourse
Religious discourse
Class discourse (middle class)
Ethnic discourse
Scientific discourse


Define deconstruction

The act of examining the origins and implications of an idea


Three dimensions of social constructionist thinking

A rejection of absolutes
The saturation of all social discourse with power or dominance
The celebration of difference.


Social Constructionist-Rejection of Absolutes

Any declaration of objectively knowable universals results in the restriction of human possibilities.


Standpoint awareness

consistently aware of their standpoints, whether they be based in culture, situation, temperament, or other characteristics of the time, place, and person.


Social Constructionist-The saturation of all social discourse with power or dominance

Power pervades all human encounters,
veil of power to make sure that they are not perpetuating inequities.


Social Constructionist-The celebration of difference.

quality of existence is plurality.


What does the objectivist or essentialist stance proclaim?

a diversity of ideas is a temporary state on the way to perfect knowing.


What are two implications of the social constructionist impulse?

Humility and egalitarianism.


What does social constructionism ask counselor educators to embrace?

Paolo Freire’s (1994) concept of learner as teacher and teacher as learner.


Where does the origins of constructivist-developmental theory lie?

The work of Jean Piaget
Children’s minds are not empty


Kegan expanded mental capacity

Actively processing material in more and more complex ways