Chapter 1 Childhood and Delinquency Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Childhood and Delinquency Deck (24)
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1

Ego identity

According to Erik Erikson, when a person develops a firm sense of who they are and what they stand for

2

Role diffusion

According to Erik Erikson, when youths spread themselves too thin, experience personal uncertainty, and place themselves at the mercy of leaders who promise to give them a sense of identity they cannot develop for themselves

3

At risk youth

Young people who are extremely vulnerable to the negative consequences of school failure, substance abuse, and early sexuality

4

Juvenile delinquency

Participation in illegal behavior by a minor who falls under a statutory age limit

5

Chronic juvenile offenders

Youths who have been arrested four or more times during their minority and perpetuate a striking majority of serious criminal acts; these youths do not age out of crime, but continue their criminal behavior into adulthood

6

Juvenile justice system

The segment of the justice system, including law enforcement officers, the courts, and correctional agencies, that is designed to treat youthful offenders

7

Paternalistic Family

A family style wherein the father is the final authority on all family matters and exercises complete control over his wife and children

8

Poor laws

English statutes that allowed the courts to appoint overseers for destitute and neglected children, allowing placement of these children as servants in the homes of the affluent

9

chancery courts

Court proceedings created in fifteenth-century England to oversee the lives of highborn minors who were orphaned or otherwise could not care for themselves

10

Parens patriae

The power of the state to act on behalf of the child and provide care and protection equivalent to that of a parent

11

Child savers

Nineteenth-century reformers who developed programs for troubled youth and influenced legislation creating the juvenile justice system; today some critics view them as being more concerned with control of the poor than with their welfare

12

House of refugees

A care facility developed by the child saves to protect potential criminal youths by taking them off the street and providing a family-like environment

13

Children aid society

Child-saving organization that took children from the streets of large cities and placed them with farm families on the prairie

14

Orphan trains

A practice of the Children's Aid Society in which urban youths were sent west for adoption with local farm couples

15

Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA)

Unit in the U.S. Department of Justice established by the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 to administer grants and provide guidance for crime prevention policy and programs

16

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)

Branch of the U.S. Justice Department charged with shaping national juvenile justice polity through disbursement of federal aid and research funds

17

Delinquent

Juvenile who has been adjudicated by a judicial officer of a juvenile court as having committed a delinquent act

18

Best interest of the child

A philosophical viewpoint that encourages the state to take control of wayward children and provide care, custody, and treatment to remedy delinquent behavior

19

Need for treatment

The criteria on which juvenile sentencing is based. Ideally, juveniles are treated according to their need for treatment and not for the seriousness of the delinquent act the committed

20

Waiver (bindover,removal)

Transferring legal jurisdiction over the most serious and experienced juvenile offenders to the adult court for criminal prosecution

21

Status offender

A child who is subject to state authority by reason of having committed an act forbidden to youth and illegal solely because the child is underage

22

Cyberbullying

Willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text

23

Cyberstalking

Use of the Internet, email, or other electronic communications devices to stalk another person. Some cyberstalkers pursue minors through online chat rooms; others harass their victims electronically

24

Sexting

Sending sexually explicit photos, images, text messages, or emails via a cell phone or other mobile device