Flashcards in chapter 1 Deck (158)
Collections of observations, such as measurements, genders, or survey responses
The science of planning studies and experiments, obtaining data, and organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, and interpreting those data and then drawing conclusions based on them.
The complete collection of allmeasurements or data that are being considered. Typically, a ___ is the complete collection of data that we would like to make inferences about.
The collection of data from everymember of a population
A subcollectionof members selected from a population
In the journal article “Residential Carbon Monoxide Detector Failure Rates in the United States”, it was stated that there are 38 million carbon monoxide detectors installed in the United States. When 30 of them were randomly selected and tested, it was found that 12 of them failed to provide an alarm in hazardous carbon monoxide conditions.
Population:All 38 million carbon monoxide detectors in the United States
•Sample:The 30 carbon monoxide detectors that were selected and tested
is one in which the respondents themselves decide whether to be included.
Voluntary Response Sampleor Self-Selected Sample
Internet polls, in which people online can decide whether to respond•Mail-in polls, in which people can decide whether to reply•Telephone call-in polls, in which newspaper, radio, or television announcements ask that you voluntarily call a special number to register your opinion
voluntary response sample
It is possible that some treatment or finding is effective, but common sense might suggest that the treatment or finding does not make enough of a difference to justify its use or to be practical.
is achieved in a study if the likelihood of an event occurring by chance is 5% or less.
When forming a conclusion based on a statistical analysis, we should make statements that are clear even to those who have no understanding of statistics and its terminology.
If survey results are not worded carefully, the results of a study can be misleading.
Sometimes survey questions are unintentionally loaded by the order of the items being considered.
order of questions
occurs when someone either refuses to respond or is unavailable.
A major use of statistics is to collect and use sample data to make conclusions about populations.
a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population
a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample
consists of numbers representing counts or measurements.
consists of names or labels (not numbers that represent counts or measurements).
categorical (qualitative data)
Quantitative data can be further described by distinguishing between ___ and ___ types.
discrete and continuous
result when the data values are quantitative and the number of values is finite, or “countable.”
result from infinitely many possible quantitative values, where the collection of values is not countable.
Another way of classifying data is to use four levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.
levels of measurement
characterized by data that consist of names, labels, or categories only, and the data cannot be arranged in some order (such as low to high).
Example: Survey responses of yes, no, and undecided
involves data that can be arranged in some order, but differences (obtained by subtraction) between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless.
Example: Course grades A, B, C, D, or F
involves data that can be arranged in order, and the differences between data values can be found and are meaningful. However, there is no natural zero starting point at which none of the quantity is present.
Example: Years 1000, 2000, 1776, and 1492
data can be arranged in order, differences can be found and are meaningful, and there is a natural zero starting point (where zero indicates that none of the quantity is present). Differences and ratios are both meaningful.
Example: Class times of 50 minutes and 100 minutes
•Nominal - categories only
•Ordinal - categories with some order
•Interval - differences but no natural zero point
•Ratio- differences and a natural zero point