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1

Collections of observations, such as measurements, genders, or survey responses

data

2

The science of planning studies and experiments, obtaining data, and organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, and interpreting those data and then drawing conclusions based on them.

statistics

3

The complete collection of allmeasurements or data that are being considered. Typically, a ___ is the complete collection of data that we would like to make inferences about.

population

4

parameter...

population

5

The collection of data from everymember of a population

census

6

A subcollectionof members selected from a population

sample

7

In the journal article “Residential Carbon Monoxide Detector Failure Rates in the United States”, it was stated that there are 38 million carbon monoxide detectors installed in the United States. When 30 of them were randomly selected and tested, it was found that 12 of them failed to provide an alarm in hazardous carbon monoxide conditions.

Population:All 38 million carbon monoxide detectors in the United States
•Sample:The 30 carbon monoxide detectors that were selected and tested

8

is one in which the respondents themselves decide whether to be included.

Voluntary Response Sampleor Self-Selected Sample

9

Internet polls, in which people online can decide whether to respond•Mail-in polls, in which people can decide whether to reply•Telephone call-in polls, in which newspaper, radio, or television announcements ask that you voluntarily call a special number to register your opinion

voluntary response sample

10

It is possible that some treatment or finding is effective, but common sense might suggest that the treatment or finding does not make enough of a difference to justify its use or to be practical.

practical significance

11

is achieved in a study if the likelihood of an event occurring by chance is 5% or less.

statistical significance

12

When forming a conclusion based on a statistical analysis, we should make statements that are clear even to those who have no understanding of statistics and its terminology.

misleading conclusion

13

If survey results are not worded carefully, the results of a study can be misleading.

loaded question

14

Sometimes survey questions are unintentionally loaded by the order of the items being considered.

order of questions

15

occurs when someone either refuses to respond or is unavailable.

nonresponse

16

A major use of statistics is to collect and use sample data to make conclusions about populations.

key concept

17

a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population

parameter

18

a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample

statistic

19

consists of numbers representing counts or measurements.

quantitative data

20

consists of names or labels (not numbers that represent counts or measurements).

categorical (qualitative data)

21

Quantitative data can be further described by distinguishing between ___ and ___ types.

discrete and continuous

22

result when the data values are quantitative and the number of values is finite, or “countable.”

discrete

23

result from infinitely many possible quantitative values, where the collection of values is not countable.

continuous

24

Another way of classifying data is to use four levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.

levels of measurement

25

characterized by data that consist of names, labels, or categories only, and the data cannot be arranged in some order (such as low to high).
Example: Survey responses of yes, no, and undecided

nominal

26

involves data that can be arranged in some order, but differences (obtained by subtraction) between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless.
Example: Course grades A, B, C, D, or F

ordinal

27

involves data that can be arranged in order, and the differences between data values can be found and are meaningful. However, there is no natural zero starting point at which none of the quantity is present.
Example: Years 1000, 2000, 1776, and 1492

interval

28

data can be arranged in order, differences can be found and are meaningful, and there is a natural zero starting point (where zero indicates that none of the quantity is present). Differences and ratios are both meaningful.
Example: Class times of 50 minutes and 100 minutes

ratio

29

•Nominal - categories only
•Ordinal - categories with some order
•Interval - differences but no natural zero point
•Ratio- differences and a natural zero point

summary :)

30

categories only

nominal