Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (58)
Law of conservation of energy
The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be converted to one form to another.
Solar radiation at the top of the Thermosphere (measured in watts per square meter)
any set of interrelated components or objects which are connected together to form a working unit or uniﬁed whole.
Types of System
A system with inputs and outputs that interacts with the surrounding environment
♣ May gain or lose energy
♣ The output is not the same as the input
input -> process -> output
A system that is shut off from the surrounding environment, so that it is entirely self-contained in terms of energy and materials.
♣ no real difference in output/input
♣ no loss of anything.
Example of an open system
input: radiation from the sun, water, nutrients, co2
process: conversion of the energy and matter into stored chemical energy (plant sugars for example)
output: oxygen into our atmosphere
The system remains balanced over time
Results from an abrupt change from one state to another
System values fluctuate around a steady average and maintains same operation level.
System values fluctuate around a stable average, but exhibits a trend overall.The trend can change over time.
SyStem jumps to anew stable average condition.
Name the spatial themes
there are 5 SPATIAL THEMES
5. Human-Earth interaction
Earth's crust and upper mantle
thin gaseous veil surrounding the Earth
Water on Earth
Interconnected web that links organisms with their physical environment (flora, fauna, ecosystems)
Who developed the system of diving the earth by latitude and longitude?
Latitude of the Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circle
66.5° - 90° N/S
International Date Line
0° (Greenwich, England)
a moment in which a system can no longer maintain its character, so it lurches to a new operational level, which may not be compatible with previous conditions.
- caused by movement in the Iron-Rich core
Any circle drawn on the globe with its center coinciding with the center of the globe, bisecting the earth into two equal halves.
The equator is a great circle.
The arc of a great circle can be used to measure the shortest distance between any two points on the surface of the Earth.
One time zone spans how many degrees longitude?
A representation, usually on a plane surface, of a region or place on Earth.
A proportion used in determining the dimensional relationship of a representation to that it represents
reduction of spherical Earth to a flat surface
2-D maps distort one or more
Main Types of projections
4 MAIN TYPES
- Cylindrical (Mercator)