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1

Law of conservation of energy

The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be converted to one form to another.

2

Solar Constant

Solar radiation at the top of the Thermosphere (measured in watts per square meter)

3

System

any set of interrelated components or objects which are connected together to form a working unit or unified whole.

4

Types of System

Open

Closed

5

Open System


A system with inputs and outputs that interacts with the surrounding environment

♣ May gain or lose energy

♣ The output is not the same as the input

input -> process -> output

6

Closed System

A system that is shut off from the surrounding environment, so that it is entirely self-contained in terms of energy and materials.

♣ no real difference in output/input

♣ no loss of anything.

7

Example of an open system

Photosynthesis

input: radiation from the sun, water, nutrients, co2
process: conversion of the energy and matter into stored chemical energy (plant sugars for example)
output: oxygen into our atmosphere

Another example:

8

Equilibrium

The system remains balanced over time

9

Metastable Equilibrium

Results from an abrupt change from one state to another

10

Steady-state Equilibrium

System values fluctuate around a steady average and maintains same operation level.

11

Dynamic Equilibrium

System values fluctuate around a stable average, but exhibits a trend overall.The trend can change over time.

“Thresholds/tipping points”
SyStem jumps to anew stable average condition.

12

Name the spatial themes

there are 5 SPATIAL THEMES

1. Region
2. Location
3. Place
4. Movement
5. Human-Earth interaction

13

Lithosphere

Earth's crust and upper mantle

14

Atmosphere

thin gaseous veil surrounding the Earth

15

Hydrosphere

Water on Earth

16

Biosphere

Interconnected web that links organisms with their physical environment (flora, fauna, ecosystems)

17

Who developed the system of diving the earth by latitude and longitude?

Ptolemy

18

Latitude of the Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circle

66.5° - 90° N/S

19

International Date Line

180°

20

Prime Meridian

0° (Greenwich, England)

21

Threshold

a moment in which a system can no longer maintain its character, so it lurches to a new operational level, which may not be compatible with previous conditions.

22

Gravity

- caused by movement in the Iron-Rich core

23

Great circle

Any circle drawn on the globe with its center coinciding with the center of the globe, bisecting the earth into two equal halves.


The equator is a great circle.

The arc of a great circle can be used to measure the shortest distance between any two points on the surface of the Earth.

24

One time zone spans how many degrees longitude?

15

25

Map

A representation, usually on a plane surface, of a region or place on Earth.

26

Scale

A proportion used in determining the dimensional relationship of a representation to that it represents

27

Map Projection

reduction of spherical Earth to a flat surface

28

2-D maps distort one or more

- Distance
- Direction
- Area
- Shape
- Proximity

29

Main Types of projections

4 MAIN TYPES

- Cylindrical (Mercator)
- Planar
- Conic
- Oval

30

Remote Sensing

The technique of obtaining information from a distance.

Acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting Earth or from other long distance methods.