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1

The story that develops in
counseling in contradiction to the dominant
story that is embedded in a client’s problem.

Alternative story

2

The process by which both therapist
and client share responsibility for the development
of alternative stories.

Co-authoring

3

The exploration of meaning
by taking apart, or unpacking, the taken-forgranted
categories and assumptions underlying
social practices that pose as truth.

Deconstruction

4

A way of understanding a situation
that has been so widely accepted within
a culture that it appears to represent “reality.”Growing out of conversations in a social and cultural
context, dominant stories shape reality in
that they construct and constitute what people
see, feel, and do.

Dominant story

5

Solution-focused therapists
inquire about those times in clients’ lives
when the problems they identify have not been
problematic. Exploring these exceptions reminds
clients that problems are not all-powerful
and have not existed forever.

Exception questions

6

Past experiences in a client’s life
when it would be reasonable to have expected
the problem to occur, but somehow it did not.

Exceptions

7

A way of speaking
in which the problem may be spoken of as if it is
a distinct entity that is separate from the person.

Externalizing conversation

8

A form of homework
a therapist might give clients to complete between
their fi rst and second therapy sessions. Clients are
asked to simply observe what is happening in their
lives that they want to continue happening.

Formula fi rst session task

9

A series of
questions asked about a problem that a client has
internalized as a means of understanding the relationship
between the person and the problem.

Mapping-the-infl uence questions

10

A solution-focused technique
that asks clients to imagine how their life
would be different if they woke up tomorrow
and they no longer had their problem.

Miracle question

11

A social constructionist conceptualization
of how people create “storied” meaning
in their lives.

Narrative

12

A postmodern approach to
therapy that is based on the therapist’s personal
characteristics that allow for creating a climate
that encourages clients to see their stories from
different perspectives. Grounded in a philosophical
framework, narrative practices assist clients
in fi nding new meanings and new possibilities in
their lives.

Narrative therapy

13

A therapist’s stance
that invites clients to become the experts who
are informing the therapist about the signifi cant
narratives of their lives.

Not-knowing position

14

An approach that concentrates
on what is right and what is working
for people rather than dwelling on defi cits, weaknesses,
and problems.

Positive psychology

15

A philosophical movement
across a variety of disciples that has aimed at
critically examining many of the assumptions
that are part of the established truths of society.
The postmodern worldview acknowledges the
complexity, relativity, and intersubjectivity of all
human experience.

Postmodernism

16

A believer in subjective realities
that cannot exist independently of the observational
processes used. Problems exist when
people agree that there is a problem that needs
to be addressed.

Postmodernist

17

At the first therapy session,
solution-focused therapists often inquire
about presession improvements, or anything clients
have done since scheduling the appointment
that has made a difference in their problems.

Pretherapy change

18

People often come
to therapy feeling overwhelmed by their problems
to which they are fused. Narrative therapists
assist clients in understanding that they do
not have to be reduced by these totalizing descriptions
of their identity.

Problem-saturated story

19

A process in narrative therapy in
which client and therapist jointly create an alternative
life story.

Re-authoring

20

A solution-focused technique
that asks clients to observe changes in
feelings, moods, thoughts, and behaviors. On a
scale of zero to 10, clients are asked to rate some
change in their experiences.

Scaling questions

21

A therapeutic perspective
within a postmodern worldview that
stresses the client’s reality without disputing the
accuracy or validity of this reality. Social constructionism
emphasizes the ways in which people
make meaning in social relationships.

Social constructionism

22

A postmodern
approach to therapy that provides a context
whereby individuals focus on recovering and
creating solutions rather than talking about their
problems.

Solution-focused brief therapy

23

A categorical description
of people that constricts them to a single dimension
that purports to capture their identity.

Totalizing descriptions

24

Aspects of lived experience
that lie outside the realm of dominant stories
or in contradiction to the problem-saturated
story.

Unique outcome

25

1. Narrative therapists believe new
stories take hold only when there is
an audience to appreciate and support
such stories.

t

26

T F 2. One of the functions of a narrative
therapist is to ask questions of the
client and, based on the answers,
generate further questions.
s specifi c
strategies for underst

t

27

T F 3. Narrative therapy is a relational and
anti-individualistic practice.

t

28

T F 4. Narrative practitioners encourage
clients to avoid being reduced
by totalizing descriptions of their
identity.

t

29

T F 5. Narrative therapists pay more attention
to a client’s past than they
do to the client’s present and future.

f

30

T F 6. In solution-focused therapy, gathering
extensive information about
a problem is a necessary step in
helping clients fi nd a solution to the
problem.

f