Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (52)
What is psychology?
psychology is the science that STUDIES BEHAVIOUR and PHYSIOLOGICAL and COGNITIVE PROCESSES that underlie it
What are the 2 main areas of psychology?
Research or clinical practice
What are the 4 area's of research?
SOCIAL- how mental life and behaviour are affected by interacting with other people; peer pressure and aggression
PERSONALITY- analyzing differences
EXPERIMENTAL- examine basic processes through animal research, etc
DEVELOPMENT- things that shape mental life and behaviour from birth to old age
What are the 3 area's of practice psychology?
CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY-diagnose and treat behavioural problems
SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY- diagnose and teat learning and emotional problems of school age children
FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY- uses stats to predict behaviour of criminals
Describe social research.
how mental life and behaviour are affected by interacting with other people; peer
Describe personality research.
analyzes personality differences
Describe experimental research.
examine basic processes through animal research, etc
Describe developmental research.
things that shape mental life and behaviour from birth to old age
What does a clinical psychologist do?
diagnose and treat behavioural problems
What does a school psychologist do?
diagnose and teat learning and emotional problems of school age children
What does a forensic psychologist do?
uses stats to predict behaviour of criminals
What are the roots of psychology?
physiology and philosophy
What connection does psychology have to philosophy?
Socrates and Aristotle brought the idea of mind and soul connection to light
Who is considered the father of modern day medicine, and played a role in the physiology side of psychology
How did Wilhem Wundt define psychology?
the scientific study of consciousness
is based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze STRUCTURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS into its BASIC ELEMENTS; just like physics breaks down matter into its basic particles
Who led the structuralists?
What did structuralism rely on?
an internal inspection reflection on your experience
the study of function and purpose of consciousness
What did functionalists look at?
They wanted to find out the adaptive significance of consciousness; focused on learning and problem solving.
Who was the leader of functionalism?
based on the premise that scientific study should only study the OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOUR
What years did behaviouralism flourish?
50's and 60's
Who was behaviouralism influenced by?
Ivan Pavlov (conditioned reflex)
Edward Thorndike (law of effect)
John B. Watson (launched behaviourism)
What did Ivan Pavlov contribute to behaviourism?
the conditioned reflex
What did Edward Thorndike contribute to behaviourism?
the law of effect
What is the Law of effect?
The law of effect basically states that “responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation.”
What is the conditioned reflex?
an acquired response that is under the control of (conditional on the occurrence of) a stimulus