Chapter 07: The Agrarian Revolution in the Americas Flashcards Preview

World Civilization 1 > Chapter 07: The Agrarian Revolution in the Americas > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 07: The Agrarian Revolution in the Americas Deck (33)
Loading flashcards...
1

Ancestors to Native Indian peoples spread from Canada to South America
The ______ group from Central Asia
Descendants today are in western Canada

second

2

The ______ and ________ peoples migrated to the American Southwest between 1300 and 1500 CE
Last group from northeastern Asia

Navajo
Apache

3

How did the ancient Americans arrive?

They crossed the Beringia land bridge during the last Ice Age and Also by water along the Pacific Coast all the way to South America

4

what was the earliest known hunting culture?

Clovis

5

The ___________ indians used __________ to kill large game

Palio
Clovis

6

What period is described by the following?
Conditions warmer and drier, so people depended on gathering as game disappeared
Little is known about the social organization in this period
Folsom points – smaller spearheads needed when megafauna died
Hammer stones to break bones for marrow
Atlatls, or spear throwers

The North American Archaic Period

7

What period is described by the following?
From 1000 BCE to 1000 CE, Native Americans east of the Mississippi River developed
Archaeologists call them Woodland civilizations
Early period (1000-1 BCE) hunters and gatherers

Early Woodland Societies

8

What period is described by the following?
Across present-day Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, New York, W. Virginia
Burial practices pottery styles different from Woodland
Hunters and gatherers, later cultivating squash, pumpkin, sunflowers goosefoot

Adena Culture (1000-200 BCE)

9

The ______ was the result of environmental change (end of Ice Age, drier climate)

Agricultural Revolution in the Americas

10

What two places developed as a result of the Agricultural Revolution?

Peru and Mexico

11

What new agricultural goods were used in Peru?

Potatoes

12

What new agricultural goods were used in Mexico?

Maize (corn), chili, pumpkins, beans

13

Maize cultivation spread along trade routes connecting _________ with ______and South America as well as North America

Mesoamerica
Peru

14

What were the 2 technological inventions did the ancient Americans have?

Stone Tools
Lack of draft animals

15

What were some limitations?

poor soils and difficult terrain and the absence of wheels and pulleys

16

What were 3 major sources of productivity in the great civilizations?

digging sticks (foot hoes)
work in and around swamps
complex irrigation systems and terracing

17

In _________ the diversity of crops meant farmers could produce in 8-10 weeks enough food to support a family for a year

Mexico

18

In _________people of different climates & zones – deserts, rain forests, mountains – pooled resources through trade

Peru

19

For animal protein, Mesoamericans raised ______

turkeys

20

In the __________, they raised guinea pigs & llamas

Andes

21

By end of __________ (2000 BCE), agriculture firmly established from Mesoamerica to South America

Archaic Period

22

During the early ___________, lived in villages of “pit houses”

Neolithic period

23

meeting houses evolved into ceremonial centers and trading hubs of complex societies
– ______ civilization in Mesoamerica

Olmec

24

meeting houses evolved into ceremonial centers and trading hubs of complex societies
– ______ civilization in South America

Chavín

25

Mesoamerica (__________): central Mexico and Central America (____________)
Earliest civilizations located on elevated plateaus or tropic lowlands

Middle America
Yucatan/Guatemala

26

What people group is described below?
“People of the Land of Rubber”
Near modern Veracruz
Maize tortillas
Polytheistic theocracies ruled by astronomer-priests of (semi-) divine status
Used accurate calendars to regulate agriculture and religion
Cities were religious centers with pyramids, temples, palaces, and ritual ball courts
Masses witnessed awe-inspiring, bloody ceremonies
Elites created writing and numerical systems
Extensive trade networks also catalysts for cultural exchange

Olmec (1200-300BCE)

27

When did the Olmec peoples decline?

600-500BCE passed their achievements to Mayans

28

What people group is described below?
a complex mosaic of ethnic and linguistic groups
Diverse ecology
20,000 ft mountains separate the Pacific Ocean from the Amazon rainforest

Pre-Columbian Peru

29

What industries did pre-columbian Peru people have?

fishing, farming, textiles, metallurgy

30

Name two Religious sites for worship of spirits in nature, ancestors

Mummified remains also revered
Wrapped in Peruvian textiles