Flashcards in Chapter 05: Warriors and Deities in the Near East Deck (55)
________: People scattered after failed rebellion against Assyrian overlords in 722, called the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. Judeans survived under the Assyrians until they were defeated in 612 BCE.
The Hebrews rose up against the Babylonians and were defeated in 586 BCE.
Thousands were taken hostage to Babylon for the good behavior of others, known as the Babylonian Captivity, from 586-539 BCE.
Judea remained under Persian rule until Alexander the Great conquered the area in the 330s BCE.
________ became the only deity of the Jews (Judea, but not Samaria); monotheism was a distinct oddity among ancient peoples.
________ dualism doctrine had considerable influence, but just how far they are related is a subject for argument.
________, the promise given to Moses during the Exodus, stated that if the sacred contract to remain constant to Yahweh and keep the faith that his people would triumph over enemies
Faith supported by a rigid set of rules Yahweh gave to _____________
Moses on Mount Sinai:
_______________ are moral regulations that have been adapted to very different circumstances.
The Ten Commandments
The Jewish faith was one of the earliest attempts to link ______ and worship of supernatural deities.
Yahweh’s follower gradually came to regard him as an enforcer of correct ethical actions.
Evil would be punished, if not in this world then the next to come. This belief was not unusual among other religions, as well.
_____ were mostly minor players in regional affairs and politics. The division into two kingdoms weakened both of these aspects. Frequent, expensive wars followed which crippled the Jews economically
Made transition from nomadic herders under ___________ to town life under __________. As many people shifted from subsistence farming to wage-earning, social tension between rich and poor appeared.
The prophets of 700s-400s BCE repeatedly called for social justice.
Abraham and Saul
Jews divided all humanity into ____________
They cast out those who married outside of the Jewish faith. They were almost never open to converts.
“we” and “they”
Yahweh was definitely a male lawgiver, speaking to other males in a society in which women counted only as the relatives and dependents of men.
In the _______, even when a female act assertively, it is on behalf of a male, not herself.
Women in ancient Hebrew societies
Marriage and divorce reflected ______.
A wife married into her husband’s family and moved into his house. Divorce easy for a husband, unusual for a wife to initiate. Women caught in ____ could be killed, but typically they divorced and went back to their father’s home.
Children were the whole reason for marriage, as with almost all early peoples. Boys shared their inheritance; girls received nothing beyond their _________ because through marriage, they would join another family that could care for them. Education was carried out within the family circle and religious in nature.
In the centuries after the fall of the monarchies of Samaria and Judea, the concept of Yahweh changed over time. There was a long, spiritual crisis during the ____________, and their hope for triumph over enemies was not realized.
Aided by new interpretations of the Covenant, or the Talmud, the Jews reappraised and made precise the nature of God and their relationship to him.
Not only was Yahweh the only god, but he was also the ________________. Whether others recognized and worshipped Yahweh was irrelevant. He stood as judge over non-believers, as well
universal god of all
God was just and merciful, _________ and __________
omnipotent and omniscient
He granted man ______ thus allowing the principle of evil to appear via the fallen angel, Lucifer.
Last Judgment concept that would condemn them to eternal punishment and deprive them of the fate that Yahweh desired and offered: salvation in blessedness.
Yahweh became a ____________.
He could be prayed to directly.
His actions were not impulsive or unpredictable.
He Relationship between God and Man is meant to be one of mutual love.
Yahweh’s promise to _______ was to preserve the Jews as a people after the Assyrian and Babylonian conquests.
Learned men, known as ________, saw this as a counter-conquest; instead of a contemptible minority, they would one day become the majority.
In this way grew the hopes for a ___________, a redeemer who would take the Jews out of their humiliations and make them a people to be feared and respected.
The message of the Lord speaking through the great prophets was distorted into a promise of earthly grandeur not a promise of immortal salvation for those who believed.
Disbelief in Jesus because he spoke of a kingdom “not of this earth.”
Jewish fanatical leaders or _____ were unwilling to bend before any nonbeliever, however powerful he might be.
Tension grew between the Jewish nation and Roman overlords. Zealots rebelled against Romans
Their defeat led to the _______, the forced emigration of much of these small people from their ancestral home to all corners of the Roman empire.