Flashcards in Chapter 05: Warriors and Deities in the Near East Deck (55)
The _______ entered history by 900 BCE, as challengers to other sematic peoples in the Upper Tigris River Valley.
By 800 BCE, the Assyrians conquered the Tigris-Euphrates region. Their chief god was the fierce _______
The Assyrians demonstrated great talent in military affairs. Their army was large and seemingly invincible, and they were experts in siege warfare. They utilized the ____________ and tightly-knit infantry formations in military conquests.
horse and chariot
They were perhaps the most hated conquerors in ancient history. _________ a king who reigned in the 7th century BCE, reveled in carnage and mutilation
The Assyrian Empire reached from the upper Tigris River all the way to central Egypt. They governed from _______ through military commanders
The conquered peoples ended up uniting and overthrowing the Assyrians. The ________ indicates that Nineveh was utterly destroyed by 612 BCE. The victors salted the earth so that the earth became infertile and uninhabitable.
Had sophisticated appreciation for all art forms
__________, one of the last Assyrian kings, built the largest library of ancient times.20,000 volumes (clay tablets) have been recovered since the early 1800s.
The Phoenicians lived along a coastal strip in what is now Lebanon. From their ports at ______ and _____, they became the greatest maritime traders and colonizers of the ancient Near East.
Tyre and Sidon
The Phoenicians were great colonists and traded in luxury wares: Around the Mediterranean Sea
As far away as Britain
Where they obtained _____ and mixed it with copper in order to make ______, the main metallic resource before 1000 BCE.
The Phoenicians spread the art of iron making from the Hittites to the Greeks into Africa.
They established colonies throughout the western Mediterranean. The great city-state of _______, from around 800 BCE to 200 BCE when it was defeated by Rome.
The Phoenicians were absorbed into the Assyrian and successive empires but remained the paramount Mediterranean traders and seafarers until the rise of Greece in the 600s BCE.
Their most notable contribution was the _______, around1000 BCE.
Their system included 22 marks (“letters”), which each corresponded to a specific consonant sound of the oral language. Definite advance in simplicity and accessibility of written communication over both the cuneiforms of the Sumerians and the hieroglyphs of the Egyptians. __________ later added signs for vowels, though Phoenicians did not use them, which is largely the same alphabet we use today.
_____ is located in present-day Iran and its ruling group, from 500 BCE – 500 CE, was the most powerful of the many peoples of Western Asia.
Persia was the central point for travel and exchange from the Mediterranean and China to India and, later, between the Arabic-Muslim and Indic-Hindu worlds.
One of the earliest pastoralist groups who conquered settled regions that supported agriculture.
They were nomads who moved south from Central Asia between 1500-1000 BCE. Although nomadic, they still possessed large numbers of ______.
They were highly skilled at cavalry tactics, enabling them to overcome their rivals Trade and war with Mesopotamia resulted in an agricultural, sedentary civilized life.
_________ was a brilliant warrior king.
He united the Persians in the mid-sixth century BCE.
Through a series of successful campaigns from 559-530 BCE, he extended his domains to the borders of India all the way to the Mediterranean coast.
His son and immediate successor, Cambyses, from 525 BCE, extended power to Arabia and the Lower Nile Valley
Cyrus the Great
Main cities were in Iran (Susa, Persepolis, Ecbatana), not Mesopotamia; the gradual decline of Mesopotamia’s importance can be dated to this time.
The ________ was like an umbrella sheltering many different peoples, who Cyrus felt were advanced and that he could learn many things from.
The Persian subjects were generally allowed to keep their customs and laws.
Under ________________, they ruled the provinces (satrapies)
Persian supervisors (satraps)
_________ ethical religion preaching that two principles are in eternal conflict: good and evil, trust and lies.
_____ was the third great Persian ruler.
The Persian Empire reached its largest size during his reign. He introduced gold and silver coinage and a calendar commonly used throughout the Near East.
He also developed an advanced law code influenced by Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Most of our knowledge of the Hebrews comes from the ________________
Old Testament, or the Tanakh
The story of ______ leading people from the wilderness into the land of Canaan is now generally accepted as a historical fact.
The story of Abraham leading people from the wilderness into the land of Canaan is now generally accepted as a historical fact. The evidence demonstrates that: In the 20th century BCE, Semitic tribes wandered around the Arabian peninsula.
In the 1500s BCE, primitive Semitic tribes settled in _______ which was under imperial Egyptian rule
The Hebrews’ Exodus from Egypt happened in the 13th century BCE and was part of a larger regional migration. The exact reasons for the exodus are not clear. Under ____ the Hebrews resolved to return to Canaan, the __________. They wandered across the Sinai Peninsula until they encountered the Canaanites and the Philistines.
“land of milk and honey”
Around 1000 BCE, the Hebrews had overcome the ___________ and set up their own small kingdom.
_________was the first king, succeeded by his lieutenant, David. David conquered Jerusalem, which then became the Hebrews’ capital city.
King Solomon, who ruled from 973-935 BCE and was the son of David, was the most renowned king of the Hebrews. The Hebrews briefly became trading intermediaries between the _________ and ____________.
Mesopotamians and Egypt
The Temple of Jerusalem was built of stone and cedarwood and decorated inside and outside with gold. Revolt against Solomon’s successor split the kingdom into ___________
Judea and Samaria, or Judah and Israel