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Flashcards in Changing Attitudes Towards the Oceans Deck (6)
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Changing attitudes towards whaling

- hunted to almost extinction during 20th century
- since 1946, industry regulated by IWC
- 1986 - indefinite ban issued, UNCLOS requires all states to follow IWC guidelines
- not entirely successful 'indigenous' traditional societies still pursue as part of culture
- Japan, lower levels but still do it, majority now see it as unacceptable
- countries more aware of environmental impacts over time, problems of overfishing and marine pollution long time until satisfactorily tackled


Population growth, rising affluence and National resources

- prosperity risen in BRIC and MINT
- almost 1 billion in Africa, Asia and Latin America achieved middle-class status in past 30 years, more pressure on ocean resources
- rising affluence and aspirations in China result in more people adopting diet rich in meat and fish, water insecurity on farmland, shark fin soup is cultural tradition in China


Marine Ecosystem over exploitation

- extensive hunting triggers system impacts, e.g. predator prey relationship
- balance of relationships in food chain may be restored if fishing ceases
- humpback whale populations unlikely to regain original size


Implications of fish stock collapse

- e.g. Newfoundland Grand Banks Cod Fishery, Canada, 40,000 people out of work in 1992
- system threshold crossed when output of system exceeded input of system, leading to collapse of fish stocks
- North Sea cod advised to avoid by Marine Conservation Society due to historically low levels, (also Atlantic salmon and med Tuna)
- indigenous communities greatly affected as relied on fish trade income


Sustainable management of marine environments

= 'meeting needs of present without compromising future generations needs'
- environmental sustainability includes renewable oceanic, terrestrial and atmospheric resources managed in ways of guaranteed continued use


Sustainable strategies applied at varying scales

- Global actions = FAO 'ensure long term conservation and sustainable use of marine resources', designates MPA (marine protected areas) supported by UNCLOS
- International & National = EU's CFP (common fisheries policy) designed to conserve fish stocks in European waters, catch limits regularly updated
- Local = Island of Aran lobbied Scottish government to designate surrounding waters as 'no-take' zones
- Business = agriculture grown rapidly since 1985, now brings new dangers to ecosystems. salmon escape from farms carrying disease and parasites common in cramped conditions
- Citizens = individuals do not support unsustainable fishing through shopping choices, Hugh-F-W 'fish fight' campaign encouraging shoppers to try less popular fish species to avoid exploitation