Flashcards in Ch.4: Operating Emergency Vehicles Deck (132)
What is one of the most critical aspects of a driver/operator's responsibilities?
The ability to safely control and maneuver fire apparatus.
What does history show that 20-25% of all firefighter injuries and deaths in the US are caused by?
Vehicle collisions while responding to or returning from emergency calls.
What are the five basic causes that fire apparatus collisions are grouped into?
1.) Improper backing of the apparatus
2.) Reckless driving by the public
3.) Excessive speed by the fire apparatus D/O
4.) Lack of driving skill and experience by the fire apparatus D/O
5.) Poor apparatus design or maintenance
What occurrence is a large percentage of collisions?
The backing of the vehicle.
What are the types of collisions that may occur due to excessive speed?
Control of the apparatus is lost on a curve or adverse road surface, causing vehicle to leave road surface, roll over, or strike another vehicle/object.
The D/O is unable to stop the apparatus in time to avoid a collision with another vehicle or object.
There is a momentary lag before the air brakes commonly used of fire apparatus activate;
therefore, it may take slightly longer to stop a fire apparatus equipped with air brakes than a vehicle with hydraulic brakes.
What may be attributed to a number of factors due to lack of driving skill by D/Os?
Insufficient training and unfamiliarity with the vehicle.
What has been attributed to many serious fire apparatus collisions?
Poor vehicle design and maintenance.
What can result in vehicle system failures that lead to collisions; particularly true of braking systems?
What are D/Os of fire apparatus regulated by?
Federal laws, state or provincial motor vehicle codes, city ordinances, NFPA standards, and departmental policies.
What must be obeyed when returning to quarters from an alarm or during any other nonemergency driving?
All traffic signals and rules.
What must D/Os do to compensate for conditions such as wet roads, darkness, fog, or any other condition that makes normal emergency vehicle operation more hazardous?
Adjust their speeds
Emergency vehicles are generally not exempt from laws that require vehicles to stop for school buses that are flashing signal lights to indicate that children are boarding or disembarking.
Can a D/O who does not obey applicable driving regulations be subject to criminal and civil prosecution if the apparatus is involved in a collision?
When climbing a hill, shift the transmission to a lower gear.
This provides adequate driving power and enables the D/O to keep the apparatus under control.
On sharp curves or when turning corners, shift standard transmissions into a lower gear BEFORE entering the curve or intersection.
This maintains peak engine power and apparatus control.
When fire apparatus must be driven over rough or rugged terrain, what gears should be used?
When driving downhill, what gear should be selected BEFORE starting downhill?
A lower gear, remaining in gear at all times.
What should D/Os of apparatus equipped with automatic transmissions be aware of when placing pressure upon the accelerator?
It influences automatic shifting.
When may it be desirable to operate the apparatus with the option of manually selecting a particular gear?
When operating at a slow speed for a long period of time or when driving up a steep hill.
Why should the D/O avoid overthrottling?
Because it will result in lugging.
What occurs when the throttle is applied while the transmission is in too high gear for a given set of conditions?
What results from overthrottling with a diesel engine?
More fuel is being injected than can be burned. [An excessive amount of carbon particles issuing from the exhaust (black smoke), oil dilution, and additional fuel consumption]
What should the D/O consider before braking to come to an even stop?
The weight of the apparatus and the condition of the brakes, tires, and road surface.
When is the engine brake and retarder activated?
When pressure is released from the accelerator.
What can long idling periods result in?
Use of 1/2 gallon of fuel/hr.; buildup of carbon in injectors, valves, pistons, and valve seats; misfiring because of injector carboning; and damage to the turbocharger shaft seals
What should be done if diesel engines are to be left idling?
Set at high idle.
Why should an engine never be shut down while the apparatus is in motion?
Because this cuts off fuel flow from the injectors.
Never shut down an engine immediately after full-load operations except in what situations?
When in an atmosphere containing flammable gases or vapors