Ch 6b: Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue Flashcards Preview

A&P I Exam 1 > Ch 6b: Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 6b: Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue Deck (32)
Loading flashcards...
1

what are the three types of muscle tissue

1. skeletal
2. cardiac
3. smooth

2

what is the structure of skeletal muscle

long, multi-nucleated cells (fibers); striated ( sarcomeres arranged in bands ); cells run in parallel direction

3

what is the function of skeletal muscle

voluntary contractions

4

what is the location of skeletal muscle

attach to bone via tendons; attach to axial and appendicular divisions of the skeleton

5

what is the structure of cardiac muscle

small, mono-nucleated cells; striated ( sarcomeres arranged in bands ); contain intercalated discs (junction between cells and allows spread of nervous impulse); branching of cells

6

what is the function of cardiac muscle

involuntary contractions

7

what is the location of cardiac muscle

heart

8

what is the structure of smooth muscle

small, mono-nucleated cells; non-striated ( no sarcomeres or bands present ); cells flow into each other

9

what is the function of smooth muscle

involuntary contractions

10

what is the location of smooth muscle

walls of blood vessels(circulation of blood); and viscera (except heart)

11

what are the three parts of a neuron

1. dendrite
2. cell body (soma)
3. axon

12

dendrite

one or more; pick up nerve impulse (action potential) and send to cell body

13

cell body (soma)

one; contains the nucleus; translates the incoming impulse (message)

14

axon

one; longest part of neuron; picks up translated message from the cell body and sends to target (effector organ)

15

effector organ

can be another neuron; gland; or muscle

16

glial cells (neuroglia)

these are supporting cells; do not conduct nerve impulses; are found in both the Central Nervous System ( Brain and Spinal Cord ) and the Peripheral Nervous System ( outside of brain & spinal cord )

17

tissue growth

1. Tissues grow because their cells increase in number or size.
2.Most embryonic or childhood growth occurs by hyperplasia (tissue growth by multiplication).
3. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue grow through hypertrophy (the enlargement of pre-existing cells).
4. Neoplasia (is the development of a tumor, whether benign or malignant, and is composed of abnormal, nonfunctional tissue).

18

tissue development

1. Embryonic Tissue undergoes differentiation
2. Epithelia can sometimes exhibit metaplasia
3. stem cells

19

differentiation

(the development of a more specialized form and function); i.e. the differentiation of mesenchyme to muscle

20

metaplasia

(a change from one type of mature tissue to another); i.e. pre-puberty vaginal epithelia is simple cuboidal, and at puberty changes to stratified squamous

21

stem cells

Are undifferentiated cells that are not yet performing any specialized function, but have the potential to differentiate into one or more types of mature, functional cells

22

embryonic stem cells

1. Compose the early embryo

2.Totipotent stem cells – have the potential to develop into any type of fully differentiated human cell, not only cells of the later embryonic, fetal, or adult body, but also cells of the temporary structures of pregnancy, such as the placenta and amniotic sac; have unlimited developmental plasticity

3.Pluripotent stem cells – have the potential to develop into any cell type of the embryo, but not into the accessory organs of pregnancy; have somewhat limited developmental plasticity

23

adult stem cells

1. Occur in small numbers in mature organs and tissues throughout a person’s life.

2. An adult stem cell divides mitotically; one of the daughter cells remains a stem cell, and the other one differentiates into a mature specialized cell

3 .Multipotent stem cells – able to develop into two or more different cell lines; some bone marrow stem cells can give rise to all types of blood cells

4. Unipotent stem cells – can produce only one mature cell type; cells that give rise to egg and sperm cells

24

what are the two ways damaged tissue can repair

1. regeneration
2. fibrosis

25

regeneration

the replacement of dead or damaged cells by the same type of cells as before; restores normal function to the organ; most skin injuries heal by regeneration

26

fibrosis

the replacement of damaged tissue with scar tissue, composed mainly of collagen produced by fibroblasts; scar tissue helps hold the organ together, but it does not restore normal function; scarring of lungs after tuberculosis infection

27

atrophy

is the shrinkage of a tissue through a loss in cell size or number; it results from normal aging (senile atrophy) and lack of use of an organ (disuse atrophy)

28

necrosis

is premature, pathological tissue death due to trauma, toxins, or infection;

29

infarction

is the sudden death of tissue that occurs when its blood supply is cut off;

30

gangrene

is any tissue necrosis resulting from an insufficient blood supply, usually involving infection