Ch. 6: General Anatomy & Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 6: General Anatomy & Physiology Deck (255)
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I control the involuntary muscles. I regulate the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels, heart, and breathing.

What nervous system am I?

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)


What are the 4 parts of the brain?

* Cerebrum
* Cerebellum
* Diencephalon
* Brain Stem


What is the largest and most complex mass of nerve tissue in the body?

The Brain


Describe the Cerebrum.

Makes up the bulk of the brain. located in the front, upper part of the cranium. Within it is the Cerebral Coortex, located in the part from which most messages are sent - such as those conveying thought, hearing, and sight.


Describe the Cerebellum

Latin for little brain. Located at the base of the cerebrum and is attached to the brain stem. It acts to control movement, coordinate voluntary muscular activity, and maintain balance and equilibrium.


Describe the Diencephalon.

Located in the uppermost part of the midbrain and has two main parts called the Thalamus and the Hypothalamus.


What are the two main parts of the Diencephalon?
Describe them.

* Thalamus:
Is the upper part of the diencephalon. It acts as a relay station for sensory impulses and plays a role in the recognition of pain and temperature in the body.

* Hypothalamus:
Is the lower part of the diencephalon. It controls many bodily functions such as body temperature and controls the pituitary gland.


Describe the Brain Stem.

Connects the spinal coord to the brain. It consists of three parts, the Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla Oblongata. It is involved in regulating such vital functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure.


What is the Spinal Cord?

A continuation of the brain stem and originates in the brain, extends down to the lower extremity of the trunk, and is protected by the spinal column.


Describe Neuron / Nerve Cell

The primary structural unit of the nervous system.


What are Neurons / Nerve Cells composed of?

Cell Body and Nucleus


What are Dendrites?

Nerve fibers extending from the nerve cell that receives impulses from other neurons.


Describe Nerves.

whitish cords, made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue, through which impulses are transmitted.


What are the 2 types of Nerves?

*Sensory (afferent) Nerves
*Motor (efferent) Nerves


Describe Sensory and Motor Nerves.

*Sensory (afferent) Nerves:
Carry impulses or messages from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations such as touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain, and pressure are experienced

*Motor (efferent) Nerves:
Carry impulses from the brain to the muscles or glands. These transmitted impulses produce movement.


Define Reflex

An automatic nerve reaction to a stimulus that involves the movement of an impulse from a sensory receptor along the afferent nerve to the spinal cord and a responsive impulse back along an efferent neuron to a muscle, causing a reaction.


How many pairs of cranial nerves arise at the base of the brain and the brain stem?



Describe cranial nerve #1 : Olfactory Nerve

Relays information about smell.
The Olfactory Nerve connects the inside of the nose with the olfactory centers in the brain.


Describe cranial nerve #2 : Optic Nerve

Each Optic Nerve is a bundle of approximately one million fibers that send visual signals from the retina to the brain.


Describe cranial nerve #3, 4, and 6 : Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducent Nerves

These nerves carry stimuli for voluntary movements of the eye muscles and eyelids. They also control the pupil dilation and changes in the lens during focusing.


Describe cranial nerve #5 : Trigeminal Nerve

Branches of this tripartite nerve all contain sensory fibers that relay signals from the head, face, and teeth; the motor fibers innervate the chewing muscles. The branches are known as Ophthalmic, Maxillary, & Mandibular.


Describe cranial nerve #7 : Facial Nerves

Branches of this nerve innervate the taste buds, the skin of the external ear, and the salivary and lacrimal glands. They also control muscles used in facial expressions.


Describe cranial nerve #8 : Vestibulocochlear Nerve

Sensory fibers in the Vestibular and Cochlear branches of this nerve transmit information about sound, balance, and orientation of the head.


Describe cranial nerve #10 : Vagus Nerve

The name "Vagus" means "Wanderer," and this nerve's sensory, motor, and autonomic fibers are involved in many vital bodily functions, including gland function, digestion, and heartbeat.


Describe cranial nerve #11 : Spinal Accessory Nerve

This nerve brings about movement in the head and shoulders. It also innervates muscles in the pharynx and larynx and is involved in the production of voice sounds.


Describe cranial nerve #9 and 12 : Glossopharyngeal and Hypoglossal Nerves

Motor fibers of these nerves are involved in swallowing, while the sensory fibers relay information about pain, taste, touch, and heat from the tongue and pharynx.


The Fifth Cranial Nerve (Trifacial/Trigeminal Nerve) consists of what 3 branches? describe them.

* Ophthalmic Nerve
* Mandibular Nerve
* Maxillary Nerve


What parts of the face does the Ophthalmic Nerve affect?

The skin of the forehead, upper eyelids, and interior portion of the scalp, orbit, eyeball, and nasal passage.


What parts of the face does the Mandibular Nerve affect?

The muscles of the chin and lower lip.


What part of the face does the Maxillary Nerve affect?

The upper part of the face.