Ch. 6: General Anatomy & Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 6: General Anatomy & Physiology Deck (255)
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61

What are the bones of the Chest?

* Thorax
* Ribs
* Scapula
* Sternum
* Clavicle

62

Name the Chest Bone:

* The chest or pulmonary trunk consisting of the sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae. An elastic boney cage that serves as a protective framework for the heart, lungs, and other internal organs.

Thorax

63

Name the Chest Bone:

* Twelve pairs of bones forming the wall of the Thorax.

Ribs

64

Name the Chest Bone:

* a.k.a. shoulder blade. The large, flat, triangular bone of the shoulder.

Scapula

65

Name the Chest Bone:

* a.k.a. breastbone. The flat bone that forms the ventral (front) support of the ribs.

Sternum

66

Name the Chest Bone:

* a.k.a. collarbone. The bone that joins the sternum and scapula

Clavicle

67

What are the bones of the Arms and Hands?

* Humerus
* Ulna
* Radius
* Carpus
* Metacarpus
* Phalanges

68

Name the Arm Bone:

* The uppermost and largest bone of the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder.

Humerus

69

Name the Arm Bone:

* The inner and larger bone of the forearm (lower arm), attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger.

Ulna

70

Name the Arm Bone:

* The smaller bone of the forearm on the same side as the thumb.

Radius

71

Name the Hand Bone:

* a.k.a. Wrist bones. A flexible joint composed of 8 small, irregular bones (carpals) held together by ligaments.

Carpus

72

Name the Hand Bone:

* a.k.a. Palms. Consists of 5 long, slender bones called metacarpal bones.

Metacarpus

73

Name the Hand Bone:

* a.k.a. Digits. The bones of the fingers; 3 in each finger and 2 in each thumb, totaling 14 bones.

Phalanges

74

The study of the nature, structure, function, and diseases of the muscle.

Myology

75

How many muscles are in the human body?
How many muscles are in the face?

Over 630 in the human body,
30 of which are in the face.

76

What are 3 types of muscular tissue?

* Striated muscles:
a.k.a. skeletal or voluntary.

* Nonstriated muscles:
a.k.a. involuntary, visceral, or smooth.

* Cardiac muscle:
the involuntary muscle that makes up the heart.

77

Describe the function of Striated Muscles.

Striated Muscles:

a.k.a. skeletal or voluntary. Attached to the bones and are controlled by the will. Nerve impulses trigger a reaction from the muscle which contracts, moving its associated bone or joint.

78

Describe the function of Non-Striated Muscles.

Non-Striated Muscles:

a.k.a. involuntary, visceral, or smooth. Functions automatically, without conscious will. Found in the digestive and circulatory systems as well as some internal organs.

79

Describe the function of the Cardiac Muscle.

Cardiac Muscle:

The involuntary muscle that makes up the heart. This muscle is unique and not found in any other part of the body. It's striated and has a crossing, banding pattern that allows contraction and thus the beating of the heart. Under the control of the autonomic nervous system.

80

What are the 3 parts of a muscle?
What are their functions?

* Origin: the more fixed part of the muscle closest to the skeleton, which flexes, but remains stationary.

* Belly: the middle part of the muscle.

* Insertion: the part of the muscle which is the movable attachment and farthest from the skeleton.

81

In what direction do you asses all muscles during a massage?

From Insertion to Origin.

82

What are some ways muscular tissue can be stimulated?

* Massage (hand or electric vibrator)
* Electrical therapy current (high-frequency, galvanic, microcurrent)
* Light rays (infrared, LED, UV radiation)
* Heat rays (heating lamps or caps)
* Moist heat (steamers or warm towels)
* Nerve impulses (through nervous system)
* Chemicals (certain acids and salts)

83

What are the 4 muscles of the Scalp?

* Epicranius / Occipitofrontalis
* Occipitalis
* Frontalis
* Epicranial Aponeurosis

84

Name the Scalp Muscle:

* A broad muscle that covers the top of the skull. Consists of two parts, Occipitalis and Frontalis.

Epicranius / Occipitofrontalis

85

Name the Scalp Muscle:

* The back of the epicranius; is the muscle that draws the scalp backward.

Occipitalis

86

Name the Scalp Muscle:

* The anterior (front) portion of the epicranius. This muscle raises the eyebrows, draws the scalp forward, and causes wrinkles across the forehead.

Frontalis

87

Name the Scalp Muscle:

* A tendon connecting the occipitalis and frontalis.

Epicranial Aponeurosis

88

What are the Muscles of the Ear?
Describe them.

* Auricularis Superior: the muscle above the ear that draws the ear upward.

* Auricularis Anterior: the muscle inn front of the ear that draws the ear forward.

* Auricularis Posterior: the muscle behind the ear that draws the ear backward.

89

What are the Muscles of the Mastication (Chewing)?

* Masseter
* Temporalis
* Medial Pterygoid
* Lateral Pterygoid

90

What are the Muscles of the Neck?
Describe them.

* Platysma:
a broad muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of chin. Responsible for lowering the lower jaw and lip.

* Sternocleidomastoid (SCM):
the muscle extending along side of the neck from the ear to the collarbone. Acts to rotate the head from side to side, up and down.