Ch 4 Pop Genetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 4 Pop Genetics Deck (31)
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Deme

A local pop of organisms that have similar genes, interbreed, and produce offspring

1

Gene pool

All of the genetic info in the breeding pop

2

Repro isolation

Any mech that prevents two pops from interbreeding and exchanging genetic material

3

Micro evolution

Small scale evolution, such as changes in allele frequency, that occurs from one gen to the next

4

Macro evolution

Large scale evo, such as a speciation event, that occurs after hundreds or thousands of gens

5

Equilibrium

A condition in which the system is stable, balanced and unchanging

6

Hardy Weinberg law of equilibrium

See p 72 and notes

7

Point mutations

Replacement of a single N base with another base, which may or may not affect the amino acid for which the triplet codes

8

Synonymous pt mutation

A neutral pt mutation in which the substituted N base creates a triplet coded to produce the same amino acid as that of the original triplet

9

Nonsyn pt mutation

A pt mutation that creates a triplet codes to produce a diff amino acid than that of the original triplet

10

Frame shift mutation

The change in a gene due to the insertion or deletion of one or more N bases, which causes the subsequent triplets to be rearranged and the codons to bread incorrectly during translation

11

Transposable elements

Mobile pieces of DNA that can copy themselves into entirely new areas of the chromosome

12

Klinefelter's syndrome

Trisomy in which males have an extra x

13

Spontaneous mutations

Random changes in DNA that occur during cell division

14

Induced mutations

Refers to those mutations in the DNA resulting from exposure to toxic cehm or radiation

15

Mutagens

Toxins, chem, radiation, that may induce genetic mutations

16

Fitness

Ave number of offspring produced by parents with a particular genotype compared to the number of offspring produced by parents with another genotype

17

Directional selection

Selection for one allele over other alleles, causing the allele frequencies to shift in one direction

18

Stabilizing selection

Selection against the extremes of the phenotypic distributing decreasing the geneti diversity for this trait in the pop

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Disruptive selection

Selection for both extremes of the phenotypic distribution, may eventually lead to a speciation event

20

Positive selection

Process in which advantageous genetic variants quickly increase I'm a freq in a pop

21

Sickle cell anemia

Deformed RBcs

22

Hemolytic anemias

I insufficient iron in blood due to destruction of red blood cells resulting from gen diseases, toxins, or infectios pathogens

23

Balanced polymorphism

Situation in which selection maintains two or more phenotypes for a specific gene in a pop

24

Hemoglobinpathies

A group of related genetic blood diseases characterized by abnormal hemoglobin

25

Thalassemia

Hemoglobin is improperly synthesized, causing th RBcs to have a shorter life span

26

G6pd

Enzyme that aids in th proper function of RBcs, def is genetic and leads to hemolytic anemia

27

Endogamous

A pop that only breeds with other members of the pop

28

Exogamous

Breed with nonmembers of their pop

29

Founder effect

Isolate from the parent pop, th accumulation of random genetic changes in a pop due to the genetic input of a few colonizere