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Flashcards in Ch 31 Reproductive Tract Deck (20)
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What meds are used to treat BPH

5 alpha reductase inhibitors
Alpha adrenergic antagonists


What meds are used to treat erectile dysfunction

Phosphodiesterase type 5 ( PDE5)inhibitors


Name Estrogen drugs

Conjugated equine estrogens ( Premarin)
Estradiol ( estrace, vagifem), estradiol hemihydrate ( estrasorb)


What is the pharmacological action of estrogens

They are hormones needed for growth and maturation of the female reproductive tract and secondary sex characteristics.
Estrogens block bone reabsorption and reduce low density lipoprotein LDL levels.
At high levels estrogens suppress the release of a follicle stimulating hormone needed for conception


What are therapeutic uses for estrogens

Relief of moderate to severe postmenopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes, mood changes
Prevention of post menopausal osteoporosis
Treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding
Treatment of prostate cancer, symptoms of vulvar atrophy


What is the route of administration for estrogen

PO, transdermal, intravaginal, IM, IV
IV and IM use is rare


What are adverse effects of estrogen

1.Endometrial and ovarian cancers when prolonged estrogen is the only post, menopausal therapy. ( administer progestins along with estrogen
Instruct to report persistent vaginal bleeding if they have a intact uterus, advise to have an endometrial biopsy q2 yrs and yearly pelvic exam.
2. Risk for estrogen dependent breast cancer
3.embolic events such as MI, PE, DVT, stroke ( woman over 60 have increased risk of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease (CHD)( avoid all nicotine products


Estrogens is what category drug

Contraindicated in abnormal undiagnosed vaginal bleeding, breast or estrogen dependent cancer, history or risk of thromboembolic disease
Use cautiously in prepubescent girls, monitor bone growth and check periodically for early epiphyseal plate closure


What are med interactions of estrogens

Estrogens can reduce the effectiveness of warfarin ( monitor INR & PT)
phenytoin use can decrease the effectiveness of estrogens
Corticocosteroids may increase the effects of estrogen
Smoking increases the risk for thrombophlebitis


When should estrogens be taken

At the same time each day preferably at bedtime


What is the prototype progesterone and other drugs

Medroxyprogesterone (provera)
Norethindrone ( micronor)
Meg estriol acetate ( megace)


What is the pharmalogical action of progesterone

It induces favorable conditions for fetal growth and development and maintain pregnancy
A drop in progesterone levels leads to menstruation


Therapeutic uses for progesterones

Use progesterones alone or with estrogens for contraception
Progesterones counter adverse effects of estrogen
Can also use in woman who are undergoing in vitro fertilization and in some clients to prevent premature birth


What are routes of progesterone

PO, IM, SC, transdermal, and intravaginal


What are adverse effects of progesterone

Breast cancer
Thrombolytic events ( MI, PE,thrombophlebitis, stroke,)
Bleeding, amenorrhea, and breast tenderness
Migraine headaches


What are contraindications and precautions of progesterones

Undiagnosed vaginal bleeding
History of thromboembolic disease, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease
History of breast or genital cancers
Smoking increases risk for thrombophlebitis
Use cautiously in diabetes mellitus,,seizure disorders, and migraine headaches


What is be advised to the pt regarding progesterone therapy

Anticipate withdrawal bleeding 3-7 days after stopping the med
Stop taking immediately if pregnancy is suspected


Concurrent use of bromocriptine ( Parlodel) and progesterone causes what



The use of carbamazepine, Phenobarbitol, phenytoin, and rifampin does what

Decreases contraceptive effectiveness


Smoking concurrently while on progesterone theory does what

Increases the risk for thrombophlebitis