Ch 27 Nutrition/Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 27 Nutrition/Metabolism Deck (47)
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1

List the 6 essential nutrients

Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Minerals
Vitamins
Water

2

Nutrition

study of the means by which living organisms obtain and utilize the nutrients they need to grow and sustain life

3

Nutrients include

most biological marcomolecules, viatmins, minerals, water

4

What two ways are nutrients described?

1) Macro or Micro nutrients
2) Essential or nonessential nutrients

5

Difference between essential and nonessential amino acids?

Essential - 8 that are needed from diet

Nonessential - 12 that are synthesized within the body

6

Essential amino acids - 8

needed from diet
Isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenyalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine

7

Difference between complete and incomplete proteins

Complete proteins contain ALL of the essential amino acids
(think animal products - dairy/meat, etc)

Incomplete proteins do not contain all (think plants/legumes/grains; have some, not all)

8

Water soluble vitamins

-dissolve in water
-easily absorbed into blood from digestive tract
-include both vitamin B and C
-vitamin B is a coenzyme
-vitamin c is important for collagen synthesis; also an antioxidant

9

Fat soluble vitamins

- dissolves in fat NOT water
-absorbed from GI tract within lipids of micelles; ultimately enters lymphatic capillaries.
- DAKE
-Vitamin D: hormone; increases Ca absorp from GI tract
-Vitamin A: formation of visual pigment retinal
-Vitamin K: synthesis of blood clotting proteins
- Vitamin E: helps stabilize/prevent damage to cell membranes

10

Essential Vitamins

MUST be provided in DIET
Vitamin deficiency disease can result if not enough

B1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 12
Biotin
Folate
Vitamin C
Vitamins DAKE

11

Sources of the B vitamins

meat, grains, nuts, dairy, some legumes, some seeds

12

sources of Biotin

meats/eggs/cheese/legumes/nuts

13

sources of Folate

green veggies, liver, eggs, whole grains, seeds, legumes

14

sources of Vit C

leafy greens, fruit, citurs, broccoli, tomato, cabbage

15

sources of DAKE

mostly leafy greens or dairy types, some liver for A and D

16

Deficiency symptoms of diff minerals: calcium, chloride, magnesium

Calcium - loss of bone mass
Cl - muscle cramps
Mg - muscle weakness/nerv sys disturbance

17

Deficiency symptoms of diff minerals: Phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulfur

Phos - loss of appetite/anxiety/ fatigue
K - muscle weakness/abnormal cardiac
Na-neuromuscular disturb;hypertension
S - protein deficiency symps.

18

Major vs Trace minerals

Major: 7; need 100mg+ per day

Trace: 10; need less than 100mg/day

19

Are all minerals essential?

YES they must all be obtained from the diet.

20

Major minerals - 7
C
C
M
P
P
S
S

Calcium
Chloride
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Potassium
Sodium
Sulfur

21

Trace Minerals - 10

C C C R I I M M S Z

Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Fluoride
Iodine
Iron
Manganese
Molybdenum
Selenium
Zinc

22

Dietary sources of Carbs

Sugars, Starch, Fiber

sweet stuff, syrup, fructose
potatoes, grains, beans, bread/pasta
veggies, grains, berries/nuts

23

Dietary sources of lipids

primarily oils, fat in meat or milk

24

Dietary sources of protein

animal protein, plants, beans/rice

25

Dietary sources of vitamins

meat, eggs, beans/legumes, nuts, veggies, fruit

26

Dietary sources of minerals

greens, meats, legumes, nuts, grains, dairy, canned foodsd etc

27

Pescatarian

does not eat meat or poultry
consumes fish as only animal protein

28

Vegetarian

no meat, fish or poultry

29

Lacto-ovo vegetarian

does not eat animal flesh but does eat milk, eggs, cheese

30

Vegan

no animal products