Ch 21: Immune System Flashcards Preview

A&P II: BIO426 > Ch 21: Immune System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 21: Immune System Deck (122)
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91

What do cytotoxic t-cells do?

attack targeted cells

92

What do helper t-cells do?

secrete interleukins

93

What do regulatory t-cells do?

Inhibit T-cell proliferation after the infection

94

What do memory t-cells do?

Remain in system after infection

95

What two types of t-cells make up the Primary Response of immunity?

  1. Helper
  2. Cytotoxic

96

What are the characteristics of helper t-cells?

  • bind to antigen
  • secrete interleukins
  • attract neutrophils
  • attract macrophage
  • stimulate b & t cell production

97

What are the characteristics of cytotoxic t-cells?

  • binds to antigen
  • is the "leathal hit"
  • releases chemicals to kill cell

98

What are the characteristics of a memory t or b-cell?

  • remain after infection
  • reinfection will be fought more quickly due to exposure and  produces secondary response 

99

What are the characteristics of B-cell activation?

  • b-cell receptors bind to antigen
  • b-cells engulf antigen and present it on surface

100

B-cell activation requires...

interleukins secreted by helper t-cells

101

Humoral immunity refers to what type of lymphocyte?

B-cell

102

Explain b-cell:

Proliferation 

Differentiation

proliferation: the b-cell is making copies itself

differentiation: it is dividing specifically into memory cells and antibody producing plasma cells

103

In a humoral immunity response, what is recognition?

  • b-cells bind to an antigen
  • the bound b-cells activate helper t-cells

104

In a humoral immunity response, the attack comes from

 Antibodies in blood stream

105

In a humoral immunity attack, neutralization occurs when

antibodies bind to and disable antigens 

106

In a humoral immunity attack, what is complement fixation?

Complements bind/puncture antigen causing inflamation leading to apoptosis (bursting)

107

In a humoral immunity attack, agglutination occurs when

Many antibodies bind to antigen causing clumping

108

In a humoral immunity attack, precipitation is when

The antigen/antibody complex (from agglutination) becomes too big (forming molecules) and falls out of solution.

109

What are the five steps of a humoral immune attack?

  1. Antibody attack
  2. Neutralization
  3. Complement fixation
  4. Agglutination
  5. Precipitation

110

What are 3 possible immune system disorders?

  1. Hypersensitivity
  2. Autoimmune diseases
  3. Immunodifficiency diseases

111

Immune Disorders:

Hypersensitivity is an

overactive immune system

112

Immune Disorders:

How many types of hypersensitivity disorders are there and what are they called?

4, 

Type 1, Type 2, Type 3, Type 4

113

Immune Disorders:

What are the characteristics of Type 1 Hypersensitivity?

  • Deals with Allergies
  • Mediated by IgE antibody
  • Allergens bind to IgE and cause a release of histamines
  • Released histamines cause inflammation and allergic response

114

Immune Disorders:

What are the characteristics of Type 2 Hypersensitivity?

  • Antibody mediated cytotoxic resonse
  • Antigen on cell binds to antibody and marks cell to be destroyed
  • This is seen in transplant rejections

115

Immune Disorders:

What are the characteristics of Type 3 Hypersensitivity?

  • antigen-antibody complex is found in blood stream
  • causes clots that lead to tissue damage
  • nephritis is an example in which causes blockage in the kidneys and kills them

116

Immune Disorders:

What are the characteristics of Type 4 Hypersensitivity?

  • cell mediated immune response
  • t-cell (instead of antibody) binds to antigen
  • can cause inflammation (anaphalactic shock) that leads to death
  • is a delayed reaction as the t-cell process takes longer than antigen/antibody process

117

Immune Disorders:

What are the characteristics of autoimmune diseases?

  • Failure of body to tolerate “self”
  • Initiates immune response against own tissues

118

Immune Disorders:

Give two examples of tissue specific autoimmune disorder

  1. Multiple Sclerosis
  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis

119

Immune Disorders:

What occurs in a systemic autoimmune disease?

Give an example

  • The body attacks molecules (as opposed to cells)
  • SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus) attacks DNA

120

Immune Disorders:

What are two kinds of immunodifficiency disorders?

  • SCID (Severe Combined ImmunoDifficiency)
  • AIDS (Acquired Immunodifficency Disorder)