What do cytotoxic t-cells do?
attack targeted cells
What do helper t-cells do?
What do regulatory t-cells do?
Inhibit T-cell proliferation after the infection
What do memory t-cells do?
Remain in system after infection
What two types of t-cells make up the Primary Response of immunity?
What are the characteristics of helper t-cells?
- bind to antigen
- secrete interleukins
- attract neutrophils
- attract macrophage
- stimulate b & t cell production
What are the characteristics of cytotoxic t-cells?
- binds to antigen
- is the "leathal hit"
- releases chemicals to kill cell
What are the characteristics of a memory t or b-cell?
- remain after infection
- reinfection will be fought more quickly due to exposure and produces secondary response
What are the characteristics of B-cell activation?
- b-cell receptors bind to antigen
- b-cells engulf antigen and present it on surface
B-cell activation requires...
interleukins secreted by helper t-cells
Humoral immunity refers to what type of lymphocyte?
proliferation: the b-cell is making copies itself
differentiation: it is dividing specifically into memory cells and antibody producing plasma cells
In a humoral immunity response, what is recognition?
- b-cells bind to an antigen
- the bound b-cells activate helper t-cells
In a humoral immunity response, the attack comes from
Antibodies in blood stream
In a humoral immunity attack, neutralization occurs when
antibodies bind to and disable antigens
In a humoral immunity attack, what is complement fixation?
Complements bind/puncture antigen causing inflamation leading to apoptosis (bursting)
In a humoral immunity attack, agglutination occurs when
Many antibodies bind to antigen causing clumping
In a humoral immunity attack, precipitation is when
The antigen/antibody complex (from agglutination) becomes too big (forming molecules) and falls out of solution.
What are the five steps of a humoral immune attack?
- Antibody attack
- Complement fixation
What are 3 possible immune system disorders?
- Autoimmune diseases
- Immunodifficiency diseases
Hypersensitivity is an
overactive immune system
How many types of hypersensitivity disorders are there and what are they called?
Type 1, Type 2, Type 3, Type 4
What are the characteristics of Type 1 Hypersensitivity?
- Deals with Allergies
- Mediated by IgE antibody
- Allergens bind to IgE and cause a release of histamines
- Released histamines cause inflammation and allergic response
What are the characteristics of Type 2 Hypersensitivity?
- Antibody mediated cytotoxic resonse
- Antigen on cell binds to antibody and marks cell to be destroyed
- This is seen in transplant rejections
What are the characteristics of Type 3 Hypersensitivity?
- antigen-antibody complex is found in blood stream
- causes clots that lead to tissue damage
- nephritis is an example in which causes blockage in the kidneys and kills them
What are the characteristics of Type 4 Hypersensitivity?
- cell mediated immune response
- t-cell (instead of antibody) binds to antigen
- can cause inflammation (anaphalactic shock) that leads to death
- is a delayed reaction as the t-cell process takes longer than antigen/antibody process
What are the characteristics of autoimmune diseases?
- Failure of body to tolerate “self”
- Initiates immune response against own tissues
Give two examples of tissue specific autoimmune disorder
- Multiple Sclerosis
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
What occurs in a systemic autoimmune disease?
Give an example
- The body attacks molecules (as opposed to cells)
- SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus) attacks DNA
What are two kinds of immunodifficiency disorders?