Ch 21: Immune System Flashcards Preview

A&P II: BIO426 > Ch 21: Immune System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 21: Immune System Deck (122)
Loading flashcards...
31

Opsonization is the...

coating of a particle/microbe with proteins to target it for phagocytosis.

32

Cytolysis, occurs when a cell...

bursts due to an osmotic imbalance that has caused excess water to diffuse into the cell.

33

Inflammation is triggered by the _______ Immune System.

Innate

34

Inflammation is indicated by...

red, swollen, painful tissue

35

inflammation is the result of an abundance of ________ at the site of an injury/infection.

white blood cells

36

In inflammation, basophils will secrete _______. 

Histamines

37

Histamine release by basophils trigger _______ which  ________ blood flow and initiates ________.

vasodilation, increase, inflammation

38

When a histamine triggers inflamation, what occurs?

  • increased blood flow to area
  • produces reddish skin
  • fluid builds up
  • brings more white cells to area

39

Endogenous pyrogens initiate _______.

fever

40

A fever is...

an increase of body temperature

41

Endogenous pyrogens are toxic to _______.

microbes

42

The Adaptive Immune System is not local but _______.

systemic

43

Systemic means the entire...

body is involved.

44

True or False

We are born with adaptive immunity.

False

45

Acquiring adaptive immunity requires _______.

Exposure

46

The adaptive immune system exhibits _______, which means that the immune system responds to a _______.

specificity

specific thing

47

What are the three components of the adaptive immune system?

  1. Lymphocytes
  2. Antigens
  3. Antibodies

48

Lymphocytes have continuous cell surface _______ that bind to specific _______.

receptors, antigens

49

Antigens bind to 

specific lymphocyte receptors

50

Antibodies bind to 

specific antigens

51

What is an antibody?

A blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen.

52

Antibodies combine chemically with substances which the body recognizes as _______, such as _______, _______, and foreign substances in the _______.

alien, bacteria, viruses, blood

53

What is an antigen?

A toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.

54

Antibodies circulate in the blood looking for _______.

Antigens

55

This structure represents an

antibody

56

The red portions are called the

light chain

57

The blue part is called the 

heavy chain

58

The top "Y" portion is called the

variable region

59

The bottom main trunk of the "Y" is called the

constant region

60

What are the characteristics of the variable region of an antibody?

  • It is different in every lymphocyte
  • It is the part that binds to the antigen