Ch 2 evolution Flashcards Preview

Physical Anthropology > Ch 2 evolution > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 2 evolution Deck (31)
Loading flashcards...
1

fossils

physical remains of part or all of once living organisms, mostly bones or teeth, that have becme mineralized by the replacement of organinc with inorganic materials

2

species

a group of related organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile, viable offspring

3

habitat

the specific area of the natureal environment in which an organism lives

4

adaptations

changes in ohysical structure, function, or behavior that allows an organism or species to survive and reproduce in a given environment

5

natural selection

the process by which some organisms, with features that enable them to adapt to the environment, preferentially survive and reproduce, thereby increasing the frequency of those features in the pop

6

adaptive radiation

the diversification of an acestral group of organisms into new forms that are adapted to specific environmental niches.

7

geology

the study of earth in regards to its composition, activity, and history

8

paleontology

the study of fossils

9

taxonomy

classificaiton of past and living forms

10

systematics

the study of biological relationships over time

11

demography

the study of population, especially with regard to birth, survival, and dath, and major factors that influence these key parts of life

12

evolutionary biology

the study of organisms and their changes, darwin founded this discipline

13

uniformitarianism

natural process operating today are the same processes that happened in the past

14

catastrophism

the doctrine asserting that cataclysmic events, rather that evolutionary processes, are responsible for geologic changes throughout earth's history.

15

lamarckism

first proposed by Lamarack, the theory of evolution through the inheritnace of acquired characteristics in which an organism can pass on features aquired during its lifetime

16

gemmules

as proposed by darwin, units of inheritance, supposedly accumulated in the gametes so they could be passed on to offspring

17

blending inheritnace

an outdated, disreputed theory that the phenotype of an offspring was a uniform blend of the parents phenotype

18

gene

the basic unit of inheritance, a sequence of DNA on a chromosome, coded to produce a specific protien

19

allele

one or more alternative forms of a gene

20

dominant

refers to an allele that is expressed in an organisms phenotype and that simultanrously masks the effects on another allele, if one is present

21

resessive

exposed in phenotype if 2 copies are present, but is masked if the dominant allele is present

22

Mendelian inheritance

the basic principles associated with the trasnmision of geneti material, forming the basis of genetics, including the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment

23

genotype

the genetic make up of an organism, the combo of alleles for a given gene

24

phenotype

the ohysical expression of the genotype. it may ne influenced by the envrio

25

chromosomes

the strand of DNA found in the nucleus of eukaryotes that contains hundreds or thousands of genes

26

evolutionary synthesis

a unified theory of evolution that combines genetics with natural selection

27

pop genetics

a specialty within the field of genetics, it focuses on the changes in the gene frequency and the effects on those changes on adaptation and evolution

28

mutation

a randome change in a gene of chromosomes, creating a newtrait that may be advantageuos, deleterious, or neutral in its effects on the organism

29

gene flow

asmixture, or the exchange of alleles between 2 pops

30

genetic drift

the random change in allele frequency from one generation to the next. with greater effects in small pops