Ch. 19 Ethics (Exam #4) Flashcards Preview

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1

Ethics

Rules of principles that determine which human actions are right or wrong.

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6 ethical principals

Autonomy
Beneficence
Nonmaleficence
Veracity
Fidelity
Justice

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veracity

giving factual information without your own beliefs

4

fidelity

loyalty, forming bond between individuals both professionally and personally

5

justice

not a right guaranteed by the law, but that all patients should have justice

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Healthcare is....

recognizing the challenge of caring for patients of various cultural as well as ethical backgrounds

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Concerns about healthcare has increased in the last two decades due too......

Advances in medical technology
Social and Legal changes involving abortion, euthanasia, patient rights, end-of-life care, and reproductive technology

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Advance Directive

Written statement of a person's wishes about how he or she would like health care decisions to be made if he or she ever loses the ability to make such decisions independently.

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Bioethical Issues

subjects that raise concerns of right and wrong in matters involving human life (Euthanize, abortion)

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Living Will

Document that allows a person to state IN ADVANCE that Life-sustaining treatment is not to be administered if the person later is terminally ill or incompetent.

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Ethical Dilemna

Situation involving competing rules or principles that appears to have no satisfactory solution. Choice between two or more equally undesirable alternatives.

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Moral or Ethical Principles

Fundamental Values or assumptions about the way individuals should be treated and cared for. These include autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, fidelity, and veracity.

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Mortal Uncertainty

Situation that exists when the individual is unsure which moral principles/values apply in a given situation.

14

Deontological

Derived from Judeo-Christian origins, this normative approach is duty-focused and centered on rules from which all action is derived. The rules represent beliefs about intrinsic good that are moral absolutes revealed by God. This approach reasons that all persons are worthy of respect and thus should be treated the same.

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Teleogical

Derived from humanistic origins, this theological approach is outcome-focused and places emphasis on results. That which causes a good outcome is a good action. "Abortion may be acceptable because it results in fewer unwanted babies." Euthanasia is an acceptable choice by some patients, because it results in decreased suffering.

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Situational

mirrors the way most individuals approach day to day thinking. This view holds that there are no prescribed rules, norms, or majority-focused results that must be followed. Decisions made in one situation cannot be generalized to another situation.

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Ethical dilemma examples

A patient in the intensive care unit
Euthanasia "mercy killing"
The patient is the primary decision maker for his or her treatment
A female patient in the hospital and dying of cancer
A Jehovahs Witness patient dying of leukemia in the hospital.

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Common principles or rules to take into consideration when ethical decision is being examined...

she never discussed answer here

19

Ethics Committee

Must be voted in, consists of healthcare professionals and non-medical members, who protect the rights safety and well being of human subjects

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Purpose of Ethics Committee

Provide education to staff
Empower all diciplines in regards to call ethics consult without retribution
Where to go when you need assistance

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Who requests an ethics consult?

Anyone! You, other nurse, patient, patient family, doctor, etc

22

ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses

Four Principles that outline standards of ethical conduct: 1. Nurses and People
2. Nurses and Practice
3. Nurses and the Profession
4. Nurses and Co-Workers

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Nurses and People

Nurse's primary professional responsibility is toward requiring nursing care. Nurse respects human rights, values, customs, and spiritual beliefs of the individual, family, and community.

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The Nuremberg Code

Identifies the need for voluntary informed consent when medical experiments are conducted on human beings. It delineates the limits and restrictions that researchers must recognize and respect.

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Nurses and the Profession

Nurse assumes the major role in determining acceptable standards of clinical nursing practice, management, research, and education.

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Nurses and Co-workers

Nurse sustains a collaborative and respectful relationship with co-workers in nursing and other fields.

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What to expect when staying in hospital.

High-quality hospital care, clean and safe environment, involvement in your care, Privacy Protection, Discharge planning, Help with bill and filing insurance claims,

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The Nuremberg Code

Identifies the need for voluntary informed consent when medical expert

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Initiating Ethics consult

Contact charge nurse
Place order for social services consult
Following social services if appropriate place ethics consult
Communicate with SS if ethics challenge is in place

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Euthanasia

Commonly referred to as "mercy killing." Greek word means "good death."