Flashcards in Ch. 17 High-Rise Office Bldgs Deck (71)
Bldg codes require bldgs (this high) have construction/fire protection features that are hallmarks of high-rise bldgs
Taller than 6 stories
Occupants should know following actions: (taapo)
Prevent smoke entering rooms.
Obtain fresh air
Any building exceeding _____________ must be ACCORDED same strategies as used in tall high-rises
Length of available ladders
Chain of fire safety (3)
Fire and bldg departments.
Weak link in chain of fire safety
High rise strategic plan: (5)
Determine specific floor.
Verify location before committing handlines.
Begin controlled evacuation.
Gain control of buildings systems.
Confine and extinguish fire.
Designs of high rise fall into 2 eras:
Pre-World War II.
Evacuation in Class I high rises usually means:
Fire floor and floor above initially
Euler's law column
Columns unsupported at their sides can carry only a FRACTION of the weight they can carry when attached at regular intervals
Medium weight office building:
-steel girders and columns, NOT trusses.
-protected by spray-on fireproofing
Prewar era also saw strong concerns for:
Life safety-numerous means of egress, usually remote from each other
Pre war bldgs were: (5)
General theme was reinforce everything.
Steel beam encased in concrete.
No hung ceilings.
Fewer electrical and electronic items.
Prewar high rises, stairways located in:
Fire towers, enclosed in 4-hr fire wall-landings open to outside air
In modern high-rise construction, WORST type of stairs:
Scissor staircases-intertwine with each other, separated by gypsum wall
No central air-conditioning means: (3)
No Ducts to move smoke.
Absence of ducts mans fewer places for hidden fire.
Windows open for horizontal ventilation.
Most important prewar building feature regarding fire spread:
Absence in central air-conditioning systems that serve more than one floor
High-rise office bldg fire require special tactics such as: (3)
1 hr scba.
2 1/2 in. hose.
Solid tip nozzles
Disadvantages of newer style high-rises: (5)
Lightweight bldg materials.
Curtain wall constr.
Wide-open floor spaces.
Key items to determine strategy: (3)
Type of constr (heavy, med, light).
Trusses in fire area.
What type of fireproofing applied
Fires in modern high-rise, the threat of collapse is remote. The greatest threat to life:
Unable to perform rapid effective ventilation
HVAC to direct smoke out of bldg:
Subject to many problems.
Extremely complex operation.
Shut it down.
Prewar high-rises had other features as well that aided fire safety and control: (3)
No hung ceilings/blind spaces.
Fewer electrical and electronic items to act as sources of ignition
Steps to remove smoke and heat
Vertical ventilation up stairways.
Horizontal ventilation out windows.
Ventilation by means of HVAC/smoke-control systems
Two factors outweigh all others in high-rise ventilation:
Wind and Stack Effect
Opening the top of a building is the _________ to understand but often _________ to accomplish.
Deciding to use HVAC, IC must know: (5)
Floor layout, stairs, air shafts/outlets.
Location of FF/civilians.
Endanger FF or civilians by drawing fire toward them
Stack effect noticeable in bldgs:
MORE than 60 feet high
-STRONGER as it gets TALLER.
Answer to mushrooming:
Provide a vent over stairway allowing heated air to escape
Using elevator shafts as vent point NOT RECOMMENDED: (4)
Hoistway door opened; elevator out of service.
Hoistway door opened; FFs fall into shaft.
Hoistway opening at top small; 2-4 sq. ft.
Hoistway doors above fire will allow heat/smoke to floors.